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On The Soul   


that of Democritus. Democritus roundly identifies soul and mind, for

he identifies what appears with what is true-that is why he commends

Homer for the phrase 'Hector lay with thought distraught'; he does not

employ mind as a special faculty dealing with truth, but identifies

soul and mind. What Anaxagoras says about them is more obscure; in

many places he tells us that the cause of beauty and order is mind,

elsewhere that it is soul; it is found, he says, in all animals, great

and small, high and low, but mind (in the sense of intelligence)

appears not to belong alike to all animals, and indeed not even to all

human beings.

All those, then, who had special regard to the fact that what has

soul in it is moved, adopted the view that soul is to be identified

with what is eminently originative of movement. All, on the other

hand, who looked to the fact that what has soul in it knows or

perceives what is, identify soul with the principle or principles of

Nature, according as they admit several such principles or one only.

Thus Empedocles declares that it is formed out of all his elements,

each of them also being soul; his words are:



For 'tis by Earth we see Earth, by Water Water,

By Ether Ether divine, by Fire destructive Fire,

By Love Love, and Hate by cruel Hate.



In the same way Plato in the Timaeus fashions soul out of his

elements; for like, he holds, is known by like, and things are

formed out of the principles or elements, so that soul must be so too.

Similarly also in his lectures 'On Philosophy' it was set forth that

the Animal-itself is compounded of the Idea itself of the One together

with the primary length, breadth, and depth, everything else, the

objects of its perception, being similarly constituted. Again he

puts his view in yet other terms: Mind is the monad, science or

knowledge the dyad (because it goes undeviatingly from one point to

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