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On The Soul   

those variously compounded; of what bodily part is mind or the

sensitive or the appetitive faculty the mode of composition? And

what is the mode of composition which constitutes each of them? It

is equally absurd to identify the soul with the ratio of the

mixture; for the mixture which makes flesh has a different ratio

between the elements from that which makes bone. The consequence of

this view will therefore be that distributed throughout the whole body

there will be many souls, since every one of the bodily parts is a

different mixture of the elements, and the ratio of mixture is in each

case a harmony, i.e. a soul.

From Empedocles at any rate we might demand an answer to the

following question for he says that each of the parts of the body is

what it is in virtue of a ratio between the elements: is the soul

identical with this ratio, or is it not rather something over and

above this which is formed in the parts? Is love the cause of any

and every mixture, or only of those that are in the right ratio? Is

love this ratio itself, or is love something over and above this? Such

are the problems raised by this account. But, on the other hand, if

the soul is different from the mixture, why does it disappear at one

and the same moment with that relation between the elements which

constitutes flesh or the other parts of the animal body? Further, if

the soul is not identical with the ratio of mixture, and it is

consequently not the case that each of the parts has a soul, what is

that which perishes when the soul quits the body?

That the soul cannot either be a harmony, or be moved in a circle,

is clear from what we have said. Yet that it can be moved incidentally

is, as we said above, possible, and even that in a sense it can move

itself, i.e. in the sense that the vehicle in which it is can be

moved, and moved by it; in no other sense can the soul be moved in


More legitimate doubts might remain as to its movement in view of

the following facts. We speak of the soul as being pained or

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