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On The Soul   

self-nutrition, sensation, thinking, and motivity.

Is each of these a soul or a part of a soul? And if a part, a part

in what sense? A part merely distinguishable by definition or a part

distinct in local situation as well? In the case of certain of these

powers, the answers to these questions are easy, in the case of others

we are puzzled what to say. just as in the case of plants which when

divided are observed to continue to live though removed to a

distance from one another (thus showing that in their case the soul of

each individual plant before division was actually one, potentially

many), so we notice a similar result in other varieties of soul,

i.e. in insects which have been cut in two; each of the segments

possesses both sensation and local movement; and if sensation,

necessarily also imagination and appetition; for, where there is

sensation, there is also pleasure and pain, and, where these,

necessarily also desire.

We have no evidence as yet about mind or the power to think; it

seems to be a widely different kind of soul, differing as what is

eternal from what is perishable; it alone is capable of existence in

isolation from all other psychic powers. All the other parts of

soul, it is evident from what we have said, are, in spite of certain

statements to the contrary, incapable of separate existence though, of

course, distinguishable by definition. If opining is distinct from

perceiving, to be capable of opining and to be capable of perceiving

must be distinct, and so with all the other forms of living above

enumerated. Further, some animals possess all these parts of soul,

some certain of them only, others one only (this is what enables us to

classify animals); the cause must be considered later.' A similar

arrangement is found also within the field of the senses; some classes

of animals have all the senses, some only certain of them, others only

one, the most indispensable, touch.

Since the expression 'that whereby we live and perceive' has two

meanings, just like the expression 'that whereby we know'-that may

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