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On The Soul   

former use is indispensable must be discussed elsewhere.

The organ of respiration is the windpipe, and the organ to which

this is related as means to end is the lungs. The latter is the part

of the body by which the temperature of land animals is raised above

that of all others. But what primarily requires the air drawn in by

respiration is not only this but the region surrounding the heart.

That is why when animals breathe the air must penetrate inwards.

Voice then is the impact of the inbreathed air against the

'windpipe', and the agent that produces the impact is the soul

resident in these parts of the body. Not every sound, as we said, made

by an animal is voice (even with the tongue we may merely make a sound

which is not voice, or without the tongue as in coughing); what

produces the impact must have soul in it and must be accompanied by an

act of imagination, for voice is a sound with a meaning, and is not

merely the result of any impact of the breath as in coughing; in voice

the breath in the windpipe is used as an instrument to knock with

against the walls of the windpipe. This is confirmed by our

inability to speak when we are breathing either out or in-we can

only do so by holding our breath; we make the movements with the

breath so checked. It is clear also why fish are voiceless; they

have no windpipe. And they have no windpipe because they do not

breathe or take in air. Why they do not is a question belonging to

another inquiry.


Smell and its object are much less easy to determine than what we

have hitherto discussed; the distinguishing characteristic of the

object of smell is less obvious than those of sound or colour. The

ground of this is that our power of smell is less discriminating and

in general inferior to that of many species of animals; men have a

poor sense of smell and our apprehension of its proper objects is

inseparably bound up with and so confused by pleasure and pain,

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