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On The Soul   

THAT there is no sixth sense in addition to the five

enumerated-sight, hearing, smell, taste, touch-may be established by

the following considerations:

If we have actually sensation of everything of which touch can

give us sensation (for all the qualities of the tangible qua

tangible are perceived by us through touch); and if absence of a sense

necessarily involves absence of a sense-organ; and if (1) all

objects that we perceive by immediate contact with them are

perceptible by touch, which sense we actually possess, and (2) all

objects that we perceive through media, i.e. without immediate

contact, are perceptible by or through the simple elements, e.g. air

and water (and this is so arranged that (a) if more than one kind of

sensible object is perceivable through a single medium, the

possessor of a sense-organ homogeneous with that medium has the

power of perceiving both kinds of objects; for example, if the

sense-organ is made of air, and air is a medium both for sound and for

colour; and that (b) if more than one medium can transmit the same

kind of sensible objects, as e.g. water as well as air can transmit

colour, both being transparent, then the possessor of either alone

will be able to perceive the kind of objects transmissible through

both); and if of the simple elements two only, air and water, go to

form sense-organs (for the pupil is made of water, the organ of

hearing is made of air, and the organ of smell of one or other of

these two, while fire is found either in none or in all-warmth being

an essential condition of all sensibility-and earth either in none or,

if anywhere, specially mingled with the components of the organ of

touch; wherefore it would remain that there can be no sense-organ

formed of anything except water and air); and if these sense-organs

are actually found in certain animals;-then all the possible senses

are possessed by those animals that are not imperfect or mutilated

(for even the mole is observed to have eyes beneath its skin); so

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