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On The Soul   


in this or that way and the pupil transmits the modification to some

third thing (and similarly in hearing), while the ultimate point of

arrival is one, a single mean, with different manners of being.

With what part of itself the soul discriminates sweet from hot I

have explained before and must now describe again as follows: That

with which it does so is a sort of unity, but in the way just

mentioned, i.e. as a connecting term. And the two faculties it

connects, being one by analogy and numerically, are each to each as

the qualities discerned are to one another (for what difference does

it make whether we raise the problem of discrimination between

disparates or between contraries, e.g. white and black?). Let then C

be to D as is to B: it follows alternando that C: A:: D: B. If then

C and D belong to one subject, the case will be the same with them

as with and B; and B form a single identity with different modes of

being; so too will the former pair. The same reasoning holds if be

sweet and B white.

The faculty of thinking then thinks the forms in the images, and

as in the former case what is to be pursued or avoided is marked out

for it, so where there is no sensation and it is engaged upon the

images it is moved to pursuit or avoidance. E.g.. perceiving by

sense that the beacon is fire, it recognizes in virtue of the

general faculty of sense that it signifies an enemy, because it sees

it moving; but sometimes by means of the images or thoughts which

are within the soul, just as if it were seeing, it calculates and

deliberates what is to come by reference to what is present; and

when it makes a pronouncement, as in the case of sensation it

pronounces the object to be pleasant or painful, in this case it

avoids or persues and so generally in cases of action.

That too which involves no action, i.e. that which is true or false,

is in the same province with what is good or bad: yet they differ in

this, that the one set imply and the other do not a reference to a

particular person.

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