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On The Soul   

mind as speculative never thinks what is practicable, it never says

anything about an object to be avoided or pursued, while this movement

is always in something which is avoiding or pursuing an object. No,

not even when it is aware of such an object does it at once enjoin

pursuit or avoidance of it; e.g. the mind often thinks of something

terrifying or pleasant without enjoining the emotion of fear. It is

the heart that is moved (or in the case of a pleasant object some

other part). Further, even when the mind does command and thought bids

us pursue or avoid something, sometimes no movement is produced; we

act in accordance with desire, as in the case of moral weakness.

And, generally, we observe that the possessor of medical knowledge

is not necessarily healing, which shows that something else is

required to produce action in accordance with knowledge; the knowledge

alone is not the cause. Lastly, appetite too is incompetent to account

fully for movement; for those who successfully resist temptation

have appetite and desire and yet follow mind and refuse to enact

that for which they have appetite.


These two at all events appear to be sources of movement: appetite

and mind (if one may venture to regard imagination as a kind of

thinking; for many men follow their imaginations contrary to

knowledge, and in all animals other than man there is no thinking or

calculation but only imagination).

Both of these then are capable of originating local movement, mind

and appetite: (1) mind, that is, which calculates means to an end,

i.e. mind practical (it differs from mind speculative in the character

of its end); while (2) appetite is in every form of it relative to

an end: for that which is the object of appetite is the stimulant of

mind practical; and that which is last in the process of thinking is

the beginning of the action. It follows that there is a

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