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Pages of Prior Analytics - Book II

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Prior Analytics - Book II   

object of desire to the same extent as B is an object of aversion,

since they are opposites: and C is similarly related to D, since

they also are opposites. If then A is an object of desire to the

same extent as D, B is an object of aversion to the same extent as C

(since each is to the same extent as each-the one an object of

aversion, the other an object of desire). Therefore both A and C

together, and B and D together, will be equally objects of desire or

aversion. But since A and C are preferable to B and D, A cannot be

equally desirable with D; for then B along with D would be equally

desirable with A along with C. But if D is preferable to A, then B

must be less an object of aversion than C: for the less is opposed

to the less. But the greater good and lesser evil are preferable to

the lesser good and greater evil: the whole BD then is preferable to

the whole AC. But ex hypothesi this is not so. A then is preferable to

D, and C consequently is less an object of aversion than B. If then

every lover in virtue of his love would prefer A, viz. that the

beloved should be such as to grant a favour, and yet should not

grant it (for which C stands), to the beloved's granting the favour

(represented by D) without being such as to grant it (represented by

B), it is clear that A (being of such a nature) is preferable to

granting the favour. To receive affection then is preferable in love

to sexual intercourse. Love then is more dependent on friendship

than on intercourse. And if it is most dependent on receiving

affection, then this is its end. Intercourse then either is not an end

at all or is an end relative to the further end, the receiving of

affection. And indeed the same is true of the other desires and arts.


It is clear then how the terms are related in conversion, and in

respect of being in a higher degree objects of aversion or of

desire. We must now state that not only dialectical and

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