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Prior Analytics - Book II   


again an argument in which the terms intermediate between the last

term and the middle are few. For in any of these cases it turns out

that we approach more nearly to knowledge. For example let A stand for

what can be taught, B for knowledge, C for justice. Now it is clear

that knowledge can be taught: but it is uncertain whether virtue is

knowledge. If now the statement BC is equally or more probable than

AC, we have a reduction: for we are nearer to knowledge, since we have

taken a new term, being so far without knowledge that A belongs to

C. Or again suppose that the terms intermediate between B and C are

few: for thus too we are nearer knowledge. For example let D stand for

squaring, E for rectilinear figure, F for circle. If there were only

one term intermediate between E and F (viz. that the circle is made

equal to a rectilinear figure by the help of lunules), we should be

near to knowledge. But when BC is not more probable than AC, and the

intermediate terms are not few, I do not call this reduction: nor

again when the statement BC is immediate: for such a statement is

knowledge.



26



An objection is a premiss contrary to a premiss. It differs from a

premiss, because it may be particular, but a premiss either cannot

be particular at all or not in universal syllogisms. An objection is

brought in two ways and through two figures; in two ways because every

objection is either universal or particular, by two figures because

objections are brought in opposition to the premiss, and opposites can

be proved only in the first and third figures. If a man maintains a

universal affirmative, we reply with a universal or a particular

negative; the former is proved from the first figure, the latter

from the third. For example let stand for there being a single

science, B for contraries. If a man premises that contraries are

subjects of a single science, the objection may be either that

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