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The First Philippic   


themselves of it.

Illi poma cadunt qui poma sub arbore quaerit.]

However, as to the importance of a general zeal in the discharge of
duty, believing you are convinced and satisfied, I say no more.

As to the kind of force which I think may extricate you from your
difficulties, the amount, the supplies of money, the best and speediest
method (in my judgment) of providing all the necessaries, I shall
endeavor to inform you forthwith, making only one request, men of
Athens. When, you have heard all, determine; prejudge not before. And
let none think I delay our operations, because I recommend an entirely
new force. Not those that cry, quickly! to-day! speak most to the
purpose; (for what has already happened we shall not be able to prevent
by our present armament;) but he that shows what and how great and
whence procured must be the force capable of enduring, till either we
have advisedly terminated the war, or overcome our enemies: for so shall
we escape annoyance in future. This I think I am able to show, without
offense to any other man who has a plan to offer. My promise indeed is
large; it shall be tested by the performance; and you shall be my
judges.

First, then, Athenians, I say we must provide fifty warships, [Footnote:
The Athenian ship of war at this time was the Trireme, or galley with
three ranks of oars. It had at the prow a beak ([Greek:
_embolon_]), with a sharp iron head, which, in a charge, (generally
made at the broadside,) was able to shatter the planks of the enemy's
vessel. An ordinary trireme carried two hundred men, including the crew
and marines. These last ([Greek: _epibatai_]) were usually ten for
each ship, but the number was often increased. The transports and
vessels of burden, whether merchant vessels or boats for the carriage of
military stores, were round-bottomed, more bulky in construction, and
moved rather with sails than oars. Hence the fighting ship is called
[Greek: _tacheia_], _swift_. It carried a sail, to be used
upon occasion, though it was mainly worked with oars.] and hold
ourselves prepared, in case of emergency, to embark and sail. I require
also an equipment of transports for half the cavalry [Footnote: The
total number was one thousand, each tribe furnishing one hundred.] and
sufficient boats. This we must have ready against his sudden, marches
from his own country to Thermopylae, the Chersonese, Olynthus, and any
where he likes. For he should entertain the belief, that possibly you
may rouse from this over-carelessness, and start off, as you did to
Euboea, [Footnote: The expedition about five years before, when the
Thebans had sent an army to Euboea, and Timotheus roused his countrymen
to expel them from the island. Of this, Demosthenes gives an animated
account at the close of tho oration on the Chersonese.] and formerly
(they say) to Haliartus, [Footnote: B. C. 395, when the war between
Thebes and Sparta had begun and Lysander besieged Haliartus. He was
slain in a sally by the Thebans and Athenians.] and very lately to
Thermopylae. And although you should not pursue just the course I would
advise, it is no slight matter, that Philip, knowing you to be in
readiness--know it he will for certain; there are too many among our own
people who report every thing to him--may either keep quiet from
apprehension, or, not heeding your arrangements, be taken off his guard,
there being nothing to prevent your sailing, if he give you a chance, to
attack his territories. Such an armament, I say, ought instantly to be
agreed upon and provided. But besides, men of Athens, you should keep in
hand some force, that will incessantly make war and annoy him: none of
your ten or twenty thousand mercenaries, not your forces on paper,
[Footnote: Literally "written in letters," that is, promised to the
generals or allies, but never sent. Jacobs: _eine Macht die auf dem
Blatte steht_. Compare Shakspeare, Henry IV, Second Part, Act i.

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