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The First Philippic   

How and when to employ the troops, the commander appointed by you will
determine as occasion requires. What you must find, is stated in my
bill. If, men of Athens, you will furnish the supplies which I mention,
and then, after completing your preparations of soldiers, ships,
cavalry, will oblige the entire force by law to remain in the service,
and, while you become your own paymasters and commissaries, demand from
your general an account of his conduct, you will cease to be always
discussing the same questions without forwarding them in the least, and
besides, Athenians, not only will you cut off his greatest revenue--What
is this? He maintains war against you through the resources of your
allies, by his piracies on their navigation--But what next? You will be
out of the reach of injury yourselves: he will not do as in time past,
when falling upon Lemnos and Imbrus he carried off your citizens
captive, seizing the vessels at Geraestus he levied an incalculable sum,
and lastly, made a descent at Marathon and carried off the sacred galley
[Footnote: A ship called Paralus generally used on religious missions or
to carry public dispatches.] from our coast, and you could neither
prevent these things nor send succors by the appointed time. But how is
it, think you, Athenians, that the Panathenaic and Dionysian festivals
[Footnote: The Panathenaic festivals were in honor of Pallas or Athene,
the protectress of Athens, and commemorated also the union of the old
Attic towns under one government. There were two, the greater held every
fourth year, the lesser annually. They were celebrated with sacrifices,
races, gymnastic and musical contests, and various other amusements and
solemnities, among which was the carrying the pictured robe of Pallas to
her temple. The Dionysia, or festival of Bacchus, will be spoken of more
fully hereafter.] take place always at the appointed time, whether
expert or unqualified persons be chosen to conduct either of them,
whereon you expend larger sums than upon any armament, and which are
more numerously attended and magnificent than almost any thing in the
world; while all your armaments are after the time, as that to Methone,
to Pagasae, to Potidaea? Because in the former case every thing is
ordered by law, and each of you knows long before-hand, who is the
choir-master [Footnote: The choregus, or choir-master, of each tribe,
had to defray the expense of the choruses, whether dramatic, lyric, or
musical, which formed part of the entertainment on solemn occasions.
This was one of the [Greek: _leitourgiai_], or burdensome offices,
to which men of property were liable at Athens, of which we shall see
more in other parts of our author.] of his tribe, who the gymnastic
[Footnote: The gymnasiarch, like the choregus, had a burden imposed on
him by his tribe, to make certain provisions for the gymnasium, public
place or school of exercise. Some of the contests at the festivals being
of a gymnastic nature, such as the Torch-race, it was his duty to make
arrangements for them, and more particularly to select the ablest youths
of the school for performers.] master, when, from whom, and what he is
to receive, and what to do. Nothing there is left unascertained or
undefined: whereas in the business of war and its preparations all is
irregular, unsettled, indefinite. Therefore, no sooner have we heard any
thing, than we appoint ship-captains, dispute with them on the
exchanges, [Footnote: For every ship of war a captain, or trierarch, was
appointed, whose duty it was, not merely to command, but take charge of
the vessel, keep it in repair, and bear the expense (partly or wholly)
of equipping it. In the Peloponnesian war we find the charge laid upon
two joint captains, and afterward it was borne by an association formed
like the Symmoriae of the Property Tax. Demosthenes, when he came to the
head of affairs, introduced some useful reforms in the system of the

The exchange, [Greek: _antidosis_], was a stringent but clumsy
contrivance, to enforce the performance of these public duties by
persons capable of bearing them. A party charged might call upon any
other person to take take the office, or exchange estates with him. If
he refused, complaint was made to the magistrate who had cognizance of

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