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The Fourth Philippic   


an army to put down their opponents. We, men of Athens, are not only in
these respects behindhand; we can not even be awaked; like men that have
drunk mandrake [Footnote: Used for a powerful opiate by the ancients. It
is called Mandragora also in English. See Othello, Act III. Sc. 3.

Not poppy, nor mandragora,
Nor all the drowsy sirups of the world,
Shall ever medicine thee to that sweet sleep
Which thou ow'dst yesterday.]

or some other sleeping potion; and methinks--for I judge the truth must
be spoken--we are by reason thereof held in such disrepute and contempt,
that, among the states in imminent danger, some dispute with us for the
lead, some for the place of congress; others have resolved to defend
themselves separately rather than in union with us.

Why am I so particular in mentioning these things? I seek not to give
offense; so help me all the powers of heaven! I wish, men of Athens, to
make it clear and manifest to you all, that habitual sloth and
indolence, the same in public matters as in private life, is not
immediately felt on every occasion of neglect, but shows itself in the
general result. [Footnote: Auger: "presentent a la fin un total
effrayant."] Look at Serrium and Doriscus; which were first disregarded
after the peace. Their names perhaps are unknown to many of you: yet
your careless abandonment of these lost Thrace and Cersobleptes your
ally. Again, seeing these places neglected and unsupported by you, he
demolished Porthmus, and raised a tyrant in Euboea like a fortress
against Attica. This being disregarded, Megara was very nearly taken.
You were insensible, indifferent to all his aggressions; gave no
intimation that you would not permit their continuance. He purchased
Antrones, [Footnote: A town in Thessaly. We do not know all the details
of Philip's proceedings in that country, but we have seen enough to
know, first under the guise of a protector he was not far short of being
the master of the Thessalian people. Some of these towns were actually
in his possession, as Pherae and Pagasae. But that the Thesssalians were
never entirely subjugated to Macedonia, and still retained a hankering
after independence, was proved at a later period by their desertion of
Antipater.] and not long after had got Oreus into his power. Many
transactions I omit; Pherae, the march against Ambracia, the massacres
at Elis, [Footnote: The Elean exiles, having engaged in their service a
body of the Phocian mercenaries, made an incursion into Elis, but were
repelled. A large number of prisoners were taken and put to death. This
happened B. C. 343. The government of Elis was at that time in the hands
of a Macedonian party.] and numberless others: for I have not entered
upon these details, to enumerate the people whom Philip has oppressed
and wronged, but to show you that Philip will not desist from wronging
all people and pursuing his conquests, until an effort is made to
prevent him.

There are persons whose custom it is, before they hear any speech in the
debate, to ask immediately--"What must we do?"--not with the intention
of doing what they are told (or they would be the most serviceable of
men), but in order to get rid of the speaker. Nevertheless, you should
be advised what to do. First, O my countrymen, you must be firmly
convinced in your minds, that Philip is at war with our state, and has
broken the peace; that, while he is inimical and hostile to the whole of
Athens, to the ground of Athens, and I may add, to the gods in Athens,
(may they exterminate him!) there is nothing which he strives and plots
against so much as our constitution, nothing in the world that he is so
anxious about, as its destruction. And thereunto he is driven in some
sort by necessity. Consider. He wishes for empire: he believes you to be
his only opponents. He has been a long time injuring you, as his own
conscience best informs him; for by means of your possessions, which he
is able to enjoy, he secures all the rest of his kingdom: had he given

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