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The Fourth Philippic   

treasury being robbed, though it depends on yourselves to guard it and
to punish the criminal, but are not pained to see Philip plundering
Greece, plundering as he does one people after another, to forward his
designs upon you.

How comes it, ye men of Athens, that of this flagrant aggressor, this
capturer of cities, no one has ever declared that he commits hostility
or injustice, while those who counsel against submission and sacrifice
are charged as the authors of war? The reason is, that people wish to
cast upon your faithful counselors the blame of any untoward events in
the war; for war must necessarily be attended with many misfortunes.
They believe that, if you resist Philip with one heart and mind, you
will prevail against him, and they can be hirelings no longer; but that
if on the first outcry [Footnote: Leland: "the first unhappy accident."
Francis gives the right meaning, but with too many words; "the first
tumults occasioned by any unfortunate success." Spillau: "the first
alarm."] you arraign certain persons and bring them to trial, they by
accusing such persons will gain a double advantage, repute among the
Athenians and recompense from Philip; and that you will punish your
friendly advisers for a cause for which you ought to punish the
traitors. Such are the hopes, such the contrivance of these charges,
"that certain persons wish to kindle a war." I am sure, however, that,
without any Athenian moving a declaration of war, Philip has taken many
of our possessions, and has recently sent succor to Cardia. If we choose
to assume that he is not making war against us, he would be the simplest
of mankind to convince us of our mistake: for when the sufferers
disclaim the injury, what should the offenders do? But when he marches
to attack us, what shall we say then? He will assure us that he is not
making war, as he assured the Orites, when his troops were in their
country, as he assured the Pheraeans before he assaulted their walls,
and the Olynthians in the first instance, until he was in their
territories with his army. Shall we then say, that persons who bid us
defend ourselves kindle a war? If so, we must be slaves; for nothing
else remains.

But remember: you have more at stake than some other people. Philip
desires not to subjugate your city, but to destroy it utterly. He is
convinced, you will not submit to be slaves; if you were inclined, you
would not know how, having been accustomed to command: you will be able,
should occasion offer, to give him more trouble than any people in the
world. For this reason he will show us no mercy, if he get us into his
power: and therefore you must make up your minds, that the struggle will
be one for life and death. These persons, who have openly sold
themselves to Philip, you must execrate, you must beat their brains out:
for it is impossible, I say impossible, to vanquish your foreign
enemies, until you have punished your enemies within the city: these are
the stumbling-blocks that must cripple your efforts against the

From what cause, do ye think, Philip insults you now; (for his conduct,
in my judgment, amounts to nothing less;) and while he deceives other
people by doing them services--this at least is something--you he
threatens already? For example, the Thessalians by many benefits he
seduced into their present servitude: no man can tell how he cheated the
poor Olynthians, giving them first Potidaea and many other places: now
he is luring the Thebans, having delivered up Boeotia to them, and freed
them from a tedious and harassing war. Of these people, who each got a
certain advantage, some have suffered what is notorious to all, others
have yet to suffer what may befall them. As to yourselves; the amount of
your losses I do not mention: but in the very making of the peace how
have you been deceived! how plundered! Lost you not the Phocians,
Thermopylae, country toward Thrace, Doriscus, Serrium, Cersobleptes
himself? Holds he not Cardia now, and avows it? Why then does he behave
thus to other people, and in a different way to you? Because our city is

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