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The Fourth Philippic   


the only one where liberty is allowed to speak for the enemy, where a
man taking a bribe may safely address the people, though they have been
deprived of their possessions. It was not safe at Olynthus to advocate
Philip's cause, without the Olynthian people sharing the benefit by
possession of Potidaea. It was not safe to advocate Philip's cause in
Thessaly, without the people of Thessaly sharing the benefit, by
Philip's expelling their tyrants and restoring the Pylaean Synod. It was
not safe at Thebes, until he restored Boeotia to them, and destroyed the
Phocians. But at Athens, though Philip has taken from you Amphipolis and
the Cardian territory, and is even turning Euboea into a hostile post,
and advancing to attack Byzantium, it is safe to speak on Philip's
behalf. Yea, among these men, some have risen rapidly from poverty to
wealth, from meanness and obscurity to repute and honor, while you, on
the contrary, have fallen from honor to obscurity, from wealth to
indigence. For the riches of a state I consider to be allies,
confidence, good-will; of all which you are destitute. And by your
neglecting these things and suffering your interests thus to be swept
away, Philip has grown prosperous and mighty, formidable to all the
Greeks and barbarians, while you are forlorn and abject, in the
abundance of your market magnificent, but in your national defenses
ridiculous. [Footnote: The whole of the foregoing passage is taken, with
some little variation, from the speech on the Chersonese. It certainly
would seem strange, if this Oration had been forged by any grammarian,
that he should have borrowed thus by wholesale from Demosthenes. There
is perhaps less difficulty in the supposition that Demosthenes repeated
his own words.]

Some of our orators, I observe, take not the same thought for you as for
themselves. They say that you should keep quiet, though you are injured;
but they can not themselves keep quiet among you, though no one injures
them. Come, raillery apart, suppose you were thus questioned,
Aristodemus, [Footnote: This man was a tragic actor, and charged by
Demosthenes with being a partisan of Philip. He was the first person who
proposed peace with Macedonia, shortly before the embassy of ten. See
the Argument to the Oration on the Peace.]--"Tell me, as you know
perfectly well, what every one else knows, that the life of private men
is secure and free from trouble and danger, while that of statesmen is
exposed to scandal [Footnote: I have taken [Greek: _philaition_] in
the passive sense, as it is explained by Reiske and Schaefer, though it
scarcely suits the character of the word. Compare Shakspeare, Henry V.
Act IV. Sc. 1.

O hard condition, twin-born with greatness,
Subjected to the breath of every fool!
What infinite heart's ease must kings neglect
That private men enjoy!]

and misfortune, full of trials and hardships every day, how comes it
that you prefer, not the quiet and easy life, but the one surrounded
with peril?"--what should you say? If we admitted the truth of what
would be your best possible answer, namely, that all you do is for honor
and renown, I wonder what puts it into your head, that you ought from
such motives to exert yourself and undergo toil and danger, while you
advise the state to give up exertion and remain idle. You can not surely
allege, that Aristodemus ought to be of importance at Athens, and Athens
to be of no account among the Greeks. Nor again do I see, that for the
commonwealth it is safe to mind her own affairs only, and hazardous for
you, not to be a superlative busy-body. [Footnote: All the translators
have mistaken [Greek: _ton allon pleon_], which is simply "more
than others," as Wolf explains it.] On the contrary, to you I see the
utmost peril from your meddling and over-meddling, to the commonwealth
peril from her inactivity. But I suppose, you inherit a reputation from
your father and grandfather, which it were disgraceful in your own
person to extinguish, whereas the ancestry of the state was ignoble and

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