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hundred long. Its waters flow into the Hellespont, the length of which
is four hundred furlongs, and the width no more than seven. The
Hellespont opens into the wide sea called the Egean.
The mode in which these distances have been measured is the
following. In a long day a vessel generally accomplishes about seventy
thousand fathoms, in the night sixty thousand. Now from the mouth of
the Pontus to the river Phasis, which is the extreme length of this
sea, is a voyage of nine days and eight nights, which makes the
distance one million one hundred and ten thousand fathoms, or eleven
thousand one hundred furlongs. Again, from Sindica, to Themiscyra on
the river Thermodon, where the Pontus is wider than at any other
place, is a sail of three days and two nights; which makes three
hundred and thirty thousand fathoms, or three thousand three hundred
furlongs. Such is the plan on which I have measured the Pontus, the
Bosphorus, and the Hellespont, and such is the account which I have to
give of them. The Pontus has also a lake belonging to it, not very
much inferior to itself in size. The waters of this lake run into
the Pontus: it is called the Maeotis, and also the Mother of the
Pontus.
Darius, after he had finished his survey, sailed back to the
bridge, which had been constructed for him by Mandrocles a Samian.
He likewise surveyed the Bosphorus, and erected upon its shores two
pillars of white marble, whereupon he inscribed the names of all the
nations which formed his army- on the one pillar in Greek, on the
other in Assyrian characters. Now his army was drawn from all the
nations under his sway; and the whole amount, without reckoning the
naval forces, was seven hundred thousand men, including cavalry. The
fleet consisted of six hundred ships. Some time afterwards the
Byzantines removed these pillars to their own city, and used them
for an altar which they erected to Orthosian Diana. One block remained
behind: it lay near the temple of Bacchus at Byzantium, and was
covered with Assyrian writing. The spot where Darius bridged the
Bosphorus was, I think, but I speak only from conjecture, half-way
between the city of Byzantium and the temple at the mouth of the
strait.
Darius was so pleased with the bridge thrown across the strait
by the Samain Mandrocles, that he not only bestowed upon him all the
customary presents, but gave him ten of every kind. Mandrocles, by the
way of offering first-fruits from these presents, caused a picture
to be painted which showed the whole of the bridge, with King Darius
sitting in a seat of honour, and his army engaged in the passage. This
painting he dedicated in the temple of Juno at Samos, attaching to
it the inscription following:-

The fish-fraught Bosphorus bridged, to Juno's fane
Did Mandrocles this proud memorial bring;
When for himself a crown he'd skill to gain,
For Samos praise, contenting the Great King.

Such was the memorial of his work which was left by the architect of
the bridge.
Darius, after rewarding Mandrocles, passed into Europe, while he
ordered the Ionians to enter the Pontus, and sail to the mouth of
the Ister. There he bade them throw a bridge across the stream and
await his coming. The Ionians, Aeolians, and Hellespontians were the
nations which furnished the chief strength of his navy. So the
fleet, threading the Cyanean Isles, proceeded straight to the Ister,
and, mounting the river to the point where its channels separate, a
distance of two days' voyage from the sea, yoked the neck of the
stream. Meantime Darius, who had crossed the Bosphorus by the bridge
over it, marched through Thrace; and happening upon the sources of the
Tearus, pitched his camp and made a stay of three days.
Now the Tearus is said by those who dwell near it, to be the
most healthful of all streams, and to cure, among other diseases,

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