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daughter of Alazir, at that time king of the Barcaeans, he took up his
abode with him. At Barca, however, certain of the citizens, together
with a number of Cyrenaean exiles, recognising him as he walked in the
forum, killed him; they slew also at the same time Alazir, his
father-in-law. So Arcesilaus, wittingly or unwittingly, disobeyed
the oracle, and thereby fulfilled his destiny.
Pheretima, the mother of Arcesilaus, during the time that her son,
after working his own ruin, dwelt at Barca, continued to enjoy all his
privileges at Cyrene, managing the government, and taking her seat
at the council-board. No sooner, however, did she hear of the death of
her son at Barca, than leaving Cyrene, she fled in haste to Egypt.
Arcesilaus had claims for service done to Cambyses, son of Cyrus;
since it was by him that Cyrene was put under the Persian yoke, and
a rate of tribute agreed upon. Pheretima therefore went straight to
Egypt, and presenting herself as a suppliant before Aryandes,
entreated him to avenge her wrongs. Her son, she said, had met his
death on account of his being so well affected towards the Medes.
Now Aryandes had been made governor of Egypt by Cambyses. He it
was who in after times was punished with death by Darius for seeking
to rival him. Aware, by report and also by his own eyesight, that
Darius wished to leave a memorial of himself, such as no king had ever
left before, Aryandes resolved to follow his example, and did so, till
he got his reward. Darius had refined gold to the last perfection of
purity in order to have coins struck of it: Aryandes, in his
Egyptian government, did the very same with silver, so that to this
day there is no such pure silver anywhere as the Aryandic. Darius,
when this came to his ears, brought another charge, a charge of
rebellion, against Aryandes, and put him to death.
At the time of which we are speaking Aryandes, moved with
compassion for Pheretima, granted her all the forces which there
were in Egypt, both land and sea. The command of the army he gave to
Amasis, a Maraphian; while Badres, one of the tribe of the Pasargadae,
was appointed to lead the fleet. Before the expedition, however,
left Egypt, he sent a herald to Barca to inquire who it was that had
slain king Arcesilaus. The Barcaeans replied "that they, one and
all, acknowledged the deed- Arcesilaus had done them many and great
injuries." After receiving this reply, Aryandes gave the troops orders
to march with Pheretima. Such was the cause which served as a
pretext for this expedition: its real object was, I believe, the
subjugation of Libya. For Libya is inhabited by many and various
races, and of these but very few were subjects of the Persian king,
while by far the larger number held Darius in no manner of respect.
The Libyans dwell in the order which I will now describe.
Beginning on the side of Egypt, the first Libyans are the Adyrmachidae
These people have, in most points, the same customs as the
Egyptians, but use the costume of the Libyans. Their women wear on
each leg a ring made of bronze; they let their hair grow long, and
when they catch any vermin on their persons, bite it and throw it
away. In this they differ from all the other Libyans. They are also
the only tribe with whom the custom obtains of bringing all women
about to become brides before the king, that he may choose such as are
agreeable to him. The Adyrmachidae extend from the borders of Egypt to
the harbour called Port Plynus.
Next to the Adyrmachidae are the Gilligammae, who inhabit the
country westward as far as the island of Aphrodisias. Off this tract
is the island of Platea, which the Cyrenaeans colonised. Here too,
upon the mainland, are Port Menelaus, and Aziris, where the Cyrenaeans
once lived. The Silphium begins to grow in this region, extending from
the island of Platea on the one side to the mouth of the Syrtis on the
other. The customs of the Gilligammae are like those of the rest of
their countrymen.
The Asbystae adjoin the Gilligammae upon the west. They inhabit
the regions above Cyrene, but do not reach to the coast, which belongs
to the Cyrenaeans. Four-horse chariots are in more common use among

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