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have already mentioned. I will now relate a tale which I heard
concerning him both at Proconnesus and at Cyzicus. Aristeas, they
said, who belonged to one of the noblest families in the island, had
entered one day into a fuller's shop, when he suddenly dropt down
dead. Hereupon the fuller shut up his shop, and went to tell Aristeas'
kindred what had happened. The report of the death had just spread
through the town, when a certain Cyzicenian, lately arrived from
Artaca, contradicted the rumour, affirming that he had met Aristeas on
his road to Cyzicus, and had spoken with him. This man, therefore,
strenuously denied the rumour; the relations, however, proceeded to
the fuller's shop with all things necessary for the funeral, intending
to carry the body away. But on the shop being opened, no Aristeas
was found, either dead or alive. Seven years afterwards he reappeared,
they told me, in Proconnesus, and wrote the poem called by the
Greeks The Arimaspeia, after which he disappeared a second time.
This is the tale current in the two cities above-mentioned.
What follows I know to have happened to the Metapontines of Italy,
three hundred and forty years after the second disappearance of
Aristeas, as I collect by comparing the accounts given me at
Proconnesus and Metapontum. Aristeas then, as the Metapontines affirm,
appeared to them in their own country, and ordered them to set up an
altar in honour of Apollo, and to place near it a statue to be
called that of Aristeas the Proconnesian. "Apollo," he told them, "had
come to their country once, though he had visited no other Italiots;
and he had been with Apollo at the time, not however in his present
form, but in the shape of a crow." Having said so much, he vanished.
Then the Metapontines, as they relate, sent to Delphi, and inquired of
the god in what light they were to regard the appearance of this ghost
of a man. The Pythoness, in reply, bade them attend to what the
spectre said, "for so it would go best with them." Thus advised,
they did as they had been directed: and there is now a statue
bearing the name of Aristeas, close by the image of Apollo in the
market-place of Metapontum, with bay-trees standing around it. But
enough has been said concerning Aristeas.
With regard to the regions which lie above the country whereof
this portion of my history treats, there is no one who possesses any
exact knowledge. Not a single person can I find who professes to be
acquainted with them by actual observation. Even Aristeas, the
traveller of whom I lately spoke, does not claim- and he is writing
poetry- to have reached any farther than the Issedonians. What he
relates concerning the regions beyond is, he confesses, mere
hearsay, being the account which the Issedonians gave him of those
countries. However, I shall proceed to mention all that I have
learnt of these parts by the most exact inquiries which I have been
able to make concerning them.
Above the mart of the Borysthenites, which is situated in the very
centre of the whole sea-coast of Scythia, the first people who inhabit
the land are the Callipedae, a Greco-Scythic race. Next to them, as
you go inland, dwell the people called the Alazonians. These two
nations in other respects resemble the Scythians in their usages,
but sow and eat corn, also onions, garlic, lentils, and millet. Beyond
the Alazonians reside Scythian cultivators, who grow corn, not for
their own use, but for sale. Still higher up are the Neuri. Northwards
of the Neuri the continent, as far as it is known to us, is
uninhabited. These are the nations along the course of the river
Hypanis, west of the Borysthenes.
Across the Borysthenes, the first country after you leave the
coast is Hylaea (the Woodland). Above this dwell the Scythian
Husbandmen, whom the Greeks living near the Hypanis call
Borysthenites, while they call themselves Olbiopolites. These
Husbandmen extend eastward a distance of three days' journey to a
river bearing the name of Panticapes, while northward the country is
theirs for eleven days' sail up the course of the Borysthenes. Further
inland there is a vast tract which is uninhabited. Above this desolate

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