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On Airs, Waters, And Places   

whatever diseases are reckoned acute, do not often occur, for such
diseases are not apt to prevail where the bowels are loose.
Ophthalmies occur of a humid character, but not of a serious nature,
and of short duration, unless they attack epidemically from the change
of the seasons. And when they pass their fiftieth year, defluxions
supervening from the brain, render them paralytic when exposed
suddently to strokes of the sun, or to cold. These diseases are
endemic to them, and, moreover, if any epidemic disease connected with
the change of the seasons, prevail, they are also liable to it.
4. But the following is the condition of cities which have the
opposite exposure, namely, to cold winds, between the summer
settings and the summer risings of the sun, and to which these winds
are peculiar, and which are sheltered from the south and the hot
breezes. In the first place the waters are, for the most part, hard
cold. The men must necessarily be well braced and slender, and they
must have the discharges downwards of the alimentary canal hard, and
of difficult evacuation, while those upwards are more fluid, and
rather bilious than pituitous. Their heads are sound and hard, and
they are liable to burstings (of vessels?) for the most part. The
diseases which prevail epidemically with them, are pleurisies, and
those which are called acute diseases. This must be the case when
the bowels are bound; and from any causes, many become affected with
suppurations in the lungs, the cause of which is the tension of the
body, and hardness of the bowels; for their dryness and the coldness
of the water dispose them to ruptures (of vessels?). Such
constitutions must be given to excess of eating, but not of
drinking; for it is not possible to be gourmands and drunkards at
the same time. Ophthalmies, too, at length supervene; these being of a
hard and violent nature, and soon ending in rupture of the eyes;
persons under thirty years of age are liable to severe bleedings at
the nose in summer; attacks of epilepsy are rare but severe. Such
people are likely to be rather long-lived; their ulcers are not
attended with serious discharges, nor of a malignant character; in
disposition they are rather ferocious than gentle. The diseases I have
mentioned are peculiar to the men, and besides they are liable to
any common complaint which may be prevailing from the changes of the
seasons. But the women, in the first place, are of a hard
constitution, from the waters being hard, indigestible, and cold;
and their menstrual discharges are not regular, but in small quantity,
and painful. Then they have difficult parturition, but are not very
subject to abortions. And when they do bring forth children, they
are unable to nurse them; for the hardness and indigestable nature
of the water puts away their milk. Phthisis frequently supervenes
after childbirth, for the efforts of it frequently bring on ruptures
and strains. Children while still little are subject to dropsies in
the testicle, which disappear as they grow older; in such a town
they are late in attaining manhood. It is, as I have now stated,
with regard to hot and cold winds and cities thus exposed.
5. Cities that are exposed to winds between the summer and the
winter risings of the sun, and those the opposite to them, have the
following characters:- Those which lie to the rising of the sun are
all likely to be more healthy than such as are turned to the North, or
those exposed to the hot winds, even if there should not be a
furlong between them. In the first place, both the heat and cold are
more moderate. Then such waters as flow to the rising sun, must
necessarily be clear, fragrant, soft, and delightful to drink, in such
a city. For the sun in rising and shining upon them purifies them,
by dispelling the vapors which generally prevail in the morning. The
persons of the inhabitants are, for the most part, well colored and
blooming, unless some disease counteract. The inhabitants have clear
voices, and in temper and intellect are superior to those which are
exposed to the north, and all the productions of the country in like
manner are better. A city so situated resembles the spring as to
moderation between heat and cold, and the diseases are few in

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