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On Airs, Waters, And Places   


women opens direct into the pudendum, which is not the case with
men, neither in them is the urethra so wide, and they drink more
than children do. Thus, or nearly so, is it with regard to them.
10. And respecting the seasons, one may judge whether the year
will prove sickly or healthy from the following observations:- If
the appearances connected with the rising and setting stars be as they
should be; if there be rains in autumn; if the winter be mild, neither
very tepid nor unseasonably cold, and if in spring the rains be
seasonable, and so also in summer, the year is likely to prove
healthy. But if the winter be dry and northerly, and the spring
showery and southerly, the summer will necessarily be of a febrile
character, and give rise to ophthalmies and dysenteries. For when
suffocating heat sets in all of a sudden, while the earth is moistened
by the vernal showers, and by the south wind, the heat is
necessarily doubled from the earth, which is thus soaked by rain and
heated by a burning sun, while, at the same time, men's bellies are
not in an orderly state, nor the brain properly dried; for it is
impossible, after such a spring, but that the body and its flesh
must be loaded with humors, so that very acute fevers will attack all,
but especially those of a phlegmatic constitution. Dysenteries are
also likely to occur to women and those of a very humid temperament.
And if at the rising of the Dogstar rain and wintery storms supervene,
and if the etesian winds blow, there is reason to hope that these
diseases will cease, and that the autumn will be healthy; but if
not, it is likely to be a fatal season to children and women, but
least of all to old men; and that convalescents will pass into
quartans, and from quartans into dropsies; but if the winter be
southerly, showery and mild, but the spring northerly, dry, and of a
wintry character, in the first place women who happen to be with
child, and whose accouchement should take place in spring, are apt
to miscarry; and such as bring forth, have feeble and sickly children,
so that they either die presently or are tender, feeble, and sickly,
if they live. Such is the case with the women. The others are
subject to dysenteries and dry ophthalmies, and some have catarrhs
beginning in the head and descending to the lungs. Men of a phlegmatic
temperament are likely to have dysenteries; and women, also, from
the humidity of their nature, the phlegm descending downwards from the
brain; those who are bilious, too, have dry ophthalmies from the
heat and dryness of their flesh; the aged, too, have catarrhs from
their flabbiness and melting of the veins, so that some of them die
suddenly and some become paralytic on the right side or the left.
For when, the winter being southerly and the body hot, the blood and
veins are not properly constringed; a spring that is northerly, dry,
and cold, having come on, the brain when it should have been
expanded and purged, by the coryza and hoarseness is then
constringed and contracted, so that the summer and the heat
occurring suddenly, and a change supervening, these diseases fall out.
And such cities as lie well to the sun and winds, and use good waters,
feel these changes less, but such as use marshy and pooly waters,
and lie well both as regards the winds and the sun, these all feel
it more. And if the summer be dry, those diseases soon cease, but if
rainy, they are protracted; and there is danger of any sore that there
is becoming phagedenic from any cause; and lienteries and dropsies
supervene at the conclusion of diseases; for the bowels are not
readily dried up. And if the summer be rainy and southerly, and next
the autumn, the winter must, of necessity, be sickly, and ardent
fevers are likely to attack those that are phlegmatic, and more
elderly than forty years, and pleurisies and peripneumonies those that
are bilious. But if the summer is parched and northerly, but the
autumn rainy and southerly, headache and sphacelus of the brain are
likely to occur; and in addition hoarseness, coryza, coughs, and in
some cases, consumption. But if the season is northerly and without
water, there being no rain, neither after the Dogstar nor Arcturus;
this state agrees best with those who are naturally phlegmatic, with

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