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On The Articulations   

together. For without something of the kind the heel cannot reach to
the head of the humerus, since, when the arm is stretched, the
armpit becomes hollow, the tendons on both sides of the armpit
making counter-contraction so as to oppose the reduction. But
another person should be seated on the other side of the patient to
hold the sound shoulder, so that the body may not be dragged along
when the arm of the affected side is pulled; and then, when the ball
is placed in the armpit, a supple piece of thong sufficiently broad is
to be placed round it, and some person taking hold of its two ends
is to seat himself above the patient's head to made counter-extension,
while at the same time he pushes with his foot against the bone at the
top of the shoulder. The ball should be placed as much on the inside
as possible, upon the ribs, and not upon the head of the humerus.

4. There is another method of reduction performed by the shoulder of
a person standing. The person operating in this way, who should be
taller than the patient, is to take hold of his arm and place the
sharp point of his own shoulder in the patient's armpit, and push it
in so that it may lodge there, and having for his object that the
patient may be suspended at his back by the armpit, he must raise
himself higher on this shoulder than the other; and he must bring
the arm of the suspended patient as quickly as possible to his own
breast. In this position he should shake the patient when he raises
him up, in order that the rest of the body may be a counterpoise to
the arm which is thus held. But if the patient be very light, a
light child should be suspended behind along with him. These methods
of reduction are all of easy application in the palestra, as they
can all be performed without instruments, but they also be used

5. Those who accomplish the reduction by forcibly bending it round a
pestle, operate in a manner which is nearly natural. But the pestle
should be wrapped in a soft shawl (for thus it will be less slippery),
and it should be forced between the ribs and the head of the
humerus. And if the pestle be short, the patient should be seated upon
something, that his arm can with difficulty pass above the pestle. But
for the most part the pestle should be longer, so that the patient
when standing may be almost suspended upon the piece of wood. And then
the arm and forearm should be stretched along the pestle, whilst
some person secures the opposite side of the body by throwing his arms
round the neck, near the clavicle.

6. But the method with a ladder is another of the same kind, and
still better, since by it the body can be more safely counterpoised on
this side; and that, while in the method which the piece of wood
resembling a pestle, there is danger of the body tumbling to either
side. But some round thing should be tied upon the step of the
ladder which may be fitted to the armpit, whereby the head of the bone
may be forced into its natural place.

7. The following, however, is the strongest of all the methods of
reduction. We must get a piece of wood, five, or at least four
inches broad, two inches in thickness, or still thinner, and two
cubits in length, or a little less; and its extremity at one end
should be rounded, and made very narrow and very slender there, and it
should have a slightly projecting edge (ambe) on its round
extremity, not on the part that is to be applied to the side, but to
the head of the humerus, so that it may be adjusted in the armpit at
the sides under the head of the humerus; and a piece of soft shawl
or cloth should be glued to the end of the piece of wood, so as to
give the less pain upon pressure. Then having pushed the head of
this piece of wood as far inward as possible between the ribs and
the head of the humerus, the whole arm is to be stretched along this
piece of wood, and is to be bound round at the arm, the fore-arm,

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