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On The Articulations   

the upper lip, but in the ox the projection of the lip is thick, and
the upper jaw is thick and obtuse, and therefore they are incapable of
seizing short herbs. But the solidungula as having prominent teeth
in both their front jaws, can crop the grass and grasp it with their
teeth while short, and delight more in short grass than in rank;
for, in general, short grass is better and more substantial than rank,
as having not yet given out its fructification. Wherefore the poet has
the following line:

As when to horned cattle dear the vernal season comes,*

because rank grass appears to be most sought after by them. But
otherwise in the ox, this joint is slacker than in other animals, and,
therefore, this animal drags his foot in walking more than any
other, and especially when lank and old. For all these reasons the
ox is most particularly subject to dislocations; and I have made the
more observations respecting him, as they confirm all that was said
before on this subject. With regard, then, to the matter on hand, I
say that dislocations occur more readily, and are more speedily
reduced in those who are lean than in those who are fleshy; and in
those who are humid and lank there is less inflammation than in such
as are dry and fleshy, and they are less compactly knit hereafter, and
there is more mucosity than usual in cases not attended with
inflammation, and hence the joints are more liable to luxations;
for, in the main, the articulations are more subject to mucosities
in those who are lean than in those who are fleshy; and the flesh of
lean persons who have not been reduced by a proper course of
discipline abounds more with mucosity than that of fat persons. But in
those cases in which the mucosity is accompanied with inflammation,
the inflammation binds (braces?) the joint, and hence those who have
small collections of mucosities are not very subject to
dislocations, which they would be if the mucosity had not been
accompanied with more or less inflammation.

*There is no such line in the works of Homer as they have come down to

9. In cases of dislocation those persons who are not attacked with
inflammation of the surrounding parts, can use the shoulder
immediately without pain, and do not think it necessary to take any
precautions with themselves; it is therefore the business of the
physician to warn them beforehand that dislocation is more likely to
return in such cases than when the tendons have been inflamed. This
remark applies to all the articulations, but particularly to those
of the shoulder and knee, for these are the joints most subject to
luxations. But those who have inflammation of the ligaments cannot use
the shoulder, for the pain and the tension induced by the inflammation
prevent them. Such cases are to be treated with cerate, compresses,
and plenty of bandages; but a ball of soft clean wool is to be
introduced into the armpit, to fill up the hollow of it, that it may
be a support to the bandaging, and maintain the joint in situ. The
arm, in general, should be inclined upward as much as possible, for
thus it will be kept at the greatest possible distance from the
place at which the head of the humerus escaped. And when you bandage
the shoulder you must fasten the arms to the sides with a band,
which is to be carried round the body. The shoulder should be rubbed
gently and softly. The physician ought to be acquainted with many
things, and among others with friction; for from the same name the
same results are not always obtained; for friction could brace a joint
when unseasonably relaxed, and relax it when unseasonably hard; but we
will define what we know respecting friction in another place. The
shoulder, then, in such a state, should be rubbed with soft hands;
and, moreover, in a gentle manner, and the joint should be moved
about, but not roughly, so as to excite pain. Things get restored

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