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On The Articulations   

extent, and suddenly, and that the ladder may neither tumble to the
ground on either side, nor they themselves fall forward. But, if the
ladder be let go from a tower, or the mast of a ship, fastened into
the ground with its cordage, it will be better, so that the ropes
run upon a pulley or axle-tree. But it is disagreeable even to enlarge
upon these matters; and yet, by the contrivances now described, the
proper succussion may be made.

44. But if the hump be situated very high up, and if succussion be
by all means to be used, it will be better to do it with the feet
downward, as has been said, for the force downward will be the greater
in this case. The patient is to be well fastened to the ladder by
cords at the breast, at the neck by means of a very loose shawl so
as merely to keep the part properly on the ladder, and the head is
to be fastened to the ladder at the forehead, the arms are to be
stretched along and attached to the patient's body, and not to the
ladder, and the rest of the body is not to be bound, except so as to
keep it in place by means of a loose shawl wrapped round it and the
ladder; attention, moreover, should be paid that these ligatures do
not interfere with the force of the succussion, and the legs are not
to be fastened to the ladder, but should be placed near one another,
so as to be in line with the spine. These matters should be thus
arranged, if recourse is to be had at all to succussion on a ladder;
for it is disgraceful in every art, and more especially in medicine,
after much trouble, much display, and much talk, to do no good after

45. In the first place, the structure of the spine known, for this
knowledge is requisite in many diseases. Wherefore, on the side turned
to the belly (the anterior?) the vertebrae are in a regular line,
and are united together by a pulpy and nervous band of connection,
originating from the cartilages, and extending to the spinal marrow.
There are certain other nervous cords which decussate, are attached
(to the vertebrae?), and are extended from both sides of them. But
we will describe in another work the connections of the veins and
arteries, their numbers, their qualities, their origin, their
functional offices in particular parts, in what sort of sheaths the
spinal marrow is inclosed, where they arise, where they terminate, how
they communicate, and what their uses. On the opposite side
(behind?) the vertebrae are connected together by a ginglymoid
articulation. Common cords (nerves?) are extended to all parts, both
those within and without. There is an osseous process from the
posterior part of all and each of the vertebra, whether greater or
smaller; and upon these processes there are cartilaginous epiphyses,
and from them arise nervous productions (ligaments?), akin to the
external nerves (tonoi). The ribs are united to them, having their
heads inclined rather to the inside than the out, and every one of
them is articulated with the vertebrae; and the ribs in man are very
curved, and, as it were, arched. The space between the ribs and the
processes of the vertebrae is filled on both sides by muscles, which
arise from the neck and extend to the loins (?). The spine,
longitudinally, is a straight line slightly curved; from the os sacrum
to the great vertebra which is connected with the articulation of
the femur, the spine inclines backward, for the bladder, the organs of
generation, and the loose portion of the rectum, are situated there.
From this, to the attachment of the diaphragm, the spine inclines
inward, and this portion alone, from the internal parts, gives
origin to muscles, which are called psoae. From this to the great
vertebra (seventh cervical?) which is above the tops of the shoulders,
it is convex behind lengthways; but it is more in appearance than it
really is, for the spinous processes are highest in the middle, and
less so above and below. The region of the neck is convex before.

46. In cases of displacement backward along the vertebrae, it does

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