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On The Surgery   

neatly, and promptly.
5. The instruments, and when and how they should be prepared, will
be treated of afterwards; so that they may not impede the work, and
that there may be no difficulty in taking hold of them, with the
part of the body which operates. But if another gives them, he must be
ready a little beforehand, and do as you direct.
6. Those about the patient must present the part to be operated upon
as may seem proper, and they must hold the rest of the body steady, in
silence, and listening to the commands of the operator.
7. There are two views of bandaging: that which regards it while
doing, and that which regards it when done. It should be done quickly,
without pain, with ease, and with elegance; quickly, by despatching
the without pain, by being readily done; with ease, by being
prepared for everything; and with elegance, so that it may be
agreeable to the sight. By what mode of training these accomplishments
are to be acquired has been stated. When done, it should fit well
and neatly; it is neatly done when with judgment, and when it is equal
and unequal, according as the parts are equal or unequal. The forms of
it (the bandage?) are the simple, the slightly winding (called ascia),
the sloping (sima), the monoculus, the rhombus, and the
semi-rhombus. The form of bandage should be suitable to the form and
the affection of the part to which it is applied.
8. There are two useful purposes to be fulfilled by bandaging:
(first,) strength, which is imparted by the compression and the number
of folds. In one case the bandage effects the cure, and in another
it contributes to the cure. For these purposes this is the rule-
that the force of the constriction be such as to prevent the adjoining
parts from separating, without compressing them much, and so that
the parts may be adjusted but not forced together; and that the
constriction be small at the extremities, and least of all in the
middle. The knot and the thread that is passed through should not be
in a downward but in an upward direction, regard being had to the
circumstances under which the case is presented; to position, to the
bandaging, and to the compression. The commencement of the ligatures
is not to be placed at the wound, but where the kriot is situated. The
knot should not be placed where it will be exposed to friction, nor
where it will be in the way, nor where it will be useless. The knot
and the thread should be soft, and not large.
9. (Second.) One ought to be well aware that every bandage has a
tendency to fall off towards the part that declines or becomes
smaller; as, for example, upwards, in the case of the head, and
downwards, in the case of the leg. The turns of the bandage should
be made from right to left, and from left to right, except on the
head, where it should be in a straight direction. When opposite
parts are to be bandaged together, we must use a bandage with two
heads; or if we make use of a bandage with one head, we must attach it
in like manner at some fixed point: such, for example, as the middle
of the head; and so in other cases. Those parts which are much exposed
to motion, such as the joints, where there is a flexion, should have
few and slight bandages applied to them, as at the ham; but where
there is much extension, the bandage should be single and broad, as at
the kneepan; and for the maintenance of the bandage in its proper
place, some turns should be carried to those parts which are not
much moved, and are lank, such as the parts above and below the
knee. In the case of the shoulder; a fold should be carried round by
the other armpit; in that of the groin, by the flanks of the
opposite side; and of the leg, to above the calf of the leg. When
the bandage has a tendency to escape above, it should be secured
below, and vice versa; and where there is no means of doing this, as
in the case of the head, the turns are to be made mostly on the most
level part of the head, and the folds are to be done with as little
obliquity as possible, so that the firmest part being last applied may
secure the portions which are more movable. When we cannot secure
the bandaging by means of folds of the cloth, nor by suspending them

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