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direction to Pyriphlegethon, and meeting in the Acherusian Lake from

the opposite side. And the water of this river too mingles with no

other, but flows round in a circle and falls into Tartarus over

against Pyriphlegethon, and the name of this river, as the poet

says, is Cocytus.

Such is the name of the other world; and when the dead arrive at the

place to which the genius of each severally conveys them, first of all

they have sentence passed upon them, as they have lived well and

piously or not. And those who appear to have lived neither well nor

ill, go to the river Acheron, and mount such conveyances as they can

get, and are carried in them to the lake, and there they dwell and

are purified of their evil deeds, and suffer the penalty of the wrongs

which they have done to others, and are absolved, and receive the

rewards of their good deeds according to their deserts. But those

who appear to be incurable by reason of the greatness of their

crimes-who have committed many and terrible deeds of sacrilege,

murders foul and violent, or the like-such are hurled into Tartarus,

which is their suitable destiny, and they never come out. Those

again who have committed crimes, which, although great, are not

unpardonable-who in a moment of anger, for example, have done violence

to a father or mother, and have repented for the remainder of their

lives, or who have taken the life of another under like extenuating

circumstances-these are plunged into Tartarus, the pains of which they

are compelled to undergo for a year, but at the end of the year the

wave casts them forth-mere homicides by way of Cocytus, parricides and

matricides by Pyriphlegethon-and they are borne to the Acherusian

Lake, and there they lift up their voices and call upon the victims

whom they have slain or wronged, to have pity on them, and to

receive them, and to let them come out of the river into the lake. And

if they prevail, then they come forth and cease from their troubles;

but if not, they are carried back again into Tartarus and from

thence into the rivers unceasingly, until they obtain mercy from those

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