republic (books 6 - 10)
Surely they will be the men who are wisest about affairs of
State, and by whom the State is best administered, and who at
the same time have other honors and another and a better life
than that of politics?
They are the men, and I will choose them, he replied.
And now shall we consider in what way such guardians will
be produced, and how they are to be brought from darkness to
light--as some are said to have ascended from the world below
to the gods?
By all means, he replied.
The process, I said, is not the turning over of an oyster-
shell, but the turning round of a soul passing from a day which
is little better than night to the true day of being, that is, the
ascent from below, which we affirm to be true philosophy?
And should we not inquire what sort of knowledge has the
power of effecting such a change?
What sort of knowledge is there which would draw the soul
from becoming to being? And another consideration has just
occurred to me: You will remember that our young men are
to be warrior athletes?
Yes, that was said.
Then this new kind of knowledge must have an additional
Usefulness in war.
Yes, if possible.
There were two parts in our former scheme of education,
were there not?
There was gymnastics, which presided over the growth and
decay of the body, and may therefore be regarded as having
to do with generation and corruption?
Then that is not the knowledge which we are seeking to dis-
But what do you say of music, what also entered to a certain
extent into our former scheme?
Music, he said, as you will remember, was the counterpart
of gymnastics, and trained the guardians by the influences of
habit, by harmony making them harmonious, by rhythm rhyth-
mical, but not giving them science; and the words, whether