republic (books 6 - 10)
And would you say that the soul of such a one is the soul
of a freeman or of a slave?
He has the soul of a slave, in my opinion.
And the State which is enslaved under a tyrant is utterly
incapable of acting voluntarily?
And also the soul which is under a tyrant (I am speaking
of the soul taken as a whole) is least capable of doing what
she desires; there is a gadfly which goads her, and she is
full of trouble and remorse?
And is the city which is under a tyrant rich or poor?
And the tyrannical soul must be always poor and insatiable?
And must not such a State and such a man be always full
Is there any State in which you will find more of lamenta-
tion and sorrow and groaning and pain?
And is there any man in whom you will find more of this
sort of misery than in the tyrannical man, who is in a fury
of passions and desires?
Reflecting upon these and similar evils, you held the tyran-
nical State to be the most miserable of States?
And I was right, he said.
Certainly, I said. And when you see the same evils in the
tyrannical man, what do you say of him?
I say that he is by far the most miserable of all men.
There, I said, I think that you are beginning to go wrong.
What do you mean?
I do not think that he has as yet reached the utmost ex-
treme of misery.
Then who is more miserable?
One of whom I am about to speak.
Who is that?