republic (books 6 - 10)
Make the proclamation yourself, he said.
And shall I add, "whether seen or unseen by gods and
Let the words be added.
Then this, I said, will be our first proof; and there is an-
other, which may also have some weight.
What is that?
The second proof is derived from the nature of the soul:
seeing that the individual soul, like the State, has been di-
vided by us into three principles, the division may, I think,
furnish a new demonstration.
Of what nature?
It seems to me that to these three principles three pleasures
correspond; also three desires and governing powers.
How do you mean? he said.
There is one principle with which, as we were saying, a
man learns, another with which he is angry; the third, hav-
ing many forms, has no special name, but is denoted by the
general term appetitive, from the extraordinary strength and
vehemence of the desires of eating and drinking and the other
sensual appetites which are the main elements of it; also
money-loving, because such desires are generally satisfied by
the help of money.
That is true, he said.
If we were to say that the loves and pleasures of this third
part were concerned with gain, we should then be able to fall
back on a single notion; and might truly and intelligibly de-
scribe this part of the soul as loving gain or money.
I agree with you.
Again, is not the passionate element wholly set on ruling
and conquering and getting fame?
Suppose we call it the contentious or ambitious--would the
term be suitable?
On the other hand, everyone sees that the principle of knowl-
edge is wholly directed to the truth, and cares less than either
of the others for gain or fame.
"Lover of wisdom," "lover of knowledge," are titles which
we may fitly apply to that part of the soul?