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Str. Yes, Socrates, but the discovery, when once made,
must be yours
as well as mine.
Y. Soc. Very good.
Str. Well, and are not arithmetic and certain other kindred arts,
merely abstract knowledge, wholly separated from action?
Y. Soc. True.
Str. But in the art of carpentering and all other handicrafts, the
knowledge of the workman is merged in his work; he not only
knows, but
he also makes things which previously did not exist.
Y. Soc. Certainly.
Str. Then let us divide sciences in general into those which are
practical and those which are-purely intellectual.
Y. Soc. Let us assume these two divisions of science, which is one
Str. And are "statesman," "king," "master," or "householder," one
and the same; or is there a science or art answering to each of
these names? Or rather, allow me to put the matter in another way.
Y. Soc. Let me hear.
Str. If any one who is in a private station has the skill to
advise one of the public physicians, must not he also be called a
Y. Soc. Yes.
Str. And if any one who is in a private station is able to advise
the ruler of a country, may not he be said to have the
knowledge which
the ruler himself ought to have?
Y. Soc. True.
Str. But, surely the science of a true king is royal science?
Y. Soc. Yes.
Str. And will not he who possesses this knowledge, whether he
happens to be a ruler or a private man, when regarded only in
reference to his art, be truly called "royal"?
Y. Soc. He certainly ought to be.
Str. And the householder and master are the same?
Y. Soc. Of course.
Str. Again, a large household may be compared to a small
they differ at all, as far as government is concerned?
Y. Soc. They will not.
Str. Then, returning to the point which we were just now
do we not clearly see that there is one science of all of them; and
this science may be called either royal or political or
economical; we
will not quarrel with any one about the name.
Y. Soc. Certainly not.
Str. This too, is evident, that the king cannot do much with his
hands, or with his whole body, towards the maintenance of his
empire, compared with what he does by the intelligence and
strength of
his mind.
Y. Soc. Clearly not.
Str. Then, shall we say that the king has a greater affinity to
knowledge than to manual arts and to practical life in general?
Y. Soc. Certainly he has.
Str. Then we may put all together as one and the
same-statesmanship and the statesman-the kingly science and the king.
Y. Soc. Clearly.
Str. And now we shall only be proceeding in due order if
we go on to
divide the sphere of knowledge?
Y. Soc. Very good.

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