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statesman   


Str. Think whether you can find any joint or parting in knowledge.
Y. Soc. Tell me of what sort.
Str. Such as this: You may remember that we made an art of
calculation?
Y. Soc. Yes.
Str. Which was, unmistakably, one of the arts of knowledge?
Y. Soc. Certainly.
Str. And to this art of calculation which discerns the differences
of numbers shall we assign any other function except to pass
judgment on their differences?
Y. Soc. How could we?
Str. You know that the master-builder does not work himself, but
is the ruler of workmen?
Y. Soc. Yes.
Str. He contributes knowledge, not manual labour?
Y. Soc. True.
Str. And may therefore be justly said to share in theoretical
science?
Y. Soc. Quite true.
Str. But he ought not, like the calculator, to regard his
functions as at and when he has formed a judgment;-he must assign to
the individual workmen their appropriate task until they have
completed the work.
Y. Soc. True.
Str. Are not all such sciences, no less than arithmetic and the
like, subjects of pure knowledge; and is not the difference between
the two classes, that the one sort has the power of judging only,
and the other of ruling as well?
Y. Soc. That is evident.
Str. May we not very properly say, that of all knowledge, there
are there are two divisions-one which rules, and the other which
judges?
Y. Soc. I should think so.
Str. And when men have anything to do in common, that they
should be
of one mind is surely a desirable thing?
Y. Soc. Very true.
Str. Then while we are at unity among ourselves, we need not mind
about the fancies of others?
Y. Soc. Certainly not.
Str. And now, in which of these divisions shall we place the
king?-Is he a judge and a kind of spectator? Or shall we
assign to him
the art of command-for he is a ruler?
Y. Soc. The latter, clearly.
Str. Then we must see whether there is any mark of division in the
art of command too. I am inclined to think that there is a
distinction
similar to that of manufacturer and retail dealer, which
parts off the
king from the herald.
Y. Soc. How is this?
Str. Why, does not the retailer receive and sell over again the
productions of others, which have been sold before?
Y. Soc. Certainly he does.
Str. And is not the herald under command, and does he not receive
orders, and in his turn give them to others?
Y. Soc. Very true.
Str. Then shall we mingle the kingly art in the same class with
the art of the herald, the interpreter, the boatswain, the prophet,
and the numerous kindred arts which exercise command; or, as in the
preceding comparison we spoke of manufacturers, or sellers for
themselves, and of retailers,-seeing, too, that the class of supreme
rulers, or rulers for themselves, is almost nameless-shall we make a

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