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word following the same analogy, and refer kings to a supreme or
ruling-for-self science, leaving the rest to receive a name from
some one else? For we are seeking the ruler; and our enquiry is not
concerned with him who is not a ruler.
Y. Soc. Very good.
Str. Thus a very fair distinction has been attained between the
man who gives his own commands, and him who gives another's. And now
let us see if the supreme power allows of any further division.
Y. Soc. By all means.
Str. I think that it does; and please to assist me in making the
Y. Soc. At what point?
Str. May not all rulers be supposed to command for the sake of
producing something?
Y. Soc. Certainly.
Str. Nor is there any difficulty in dividing the things produced
into two classes.
Y. Soc. How would you divide them?
Str. Of the whole class some have life and some are without life.
Y. Soc. True.
Str. And by the help of this distinction we may make, if we
please, a subdivision of the section of knowledge which commands.
Y. Soc. At what point?
Str. One part may be set over the production of lifeless, the
other of living objects; and in this way the whole will be divided.
Y. Soc. Certainly.
Str. That division, then, is complete; and now we may leave one
half, and take up the other; which may also be divided into two.
Y. Soc. Which of the two halves do you men?
Str. Of course that which exercises command about animals. For,
surely, the royal science is not like that of a master-workman, a
science presiding over lifeless objects;-the king has a nobler
function, which is the management and control of living beings.
Y. Soc. True.
Str. And the breeding and tending of living beings may be observed
to be sometimes a tending of the individual; in other cases, a
common care of creatures in flocks?
Y. Soc. True.
Str. But the statesman is not a tender of individuals-not like the
driver or groom of a single ox or horse; he is rather to be compared
with the keeper of a drove of horses or oxen.
Y. Soc. Yes, I see, thanks to you.
Str. Shall we call this art of tending many animals together, the
art of managing a herd, or the art of collective management?
Y. Soc. No matter;-Whichever suggests itself to us in the course
of conversation.
Str. Very good, Socrates; and, if you continue to be not too
particular about names, you will be all the richer in wisdom when
you are an old man. And now, as you say, leaving the
discussion of the
name, -can you see a way in which a person, by showing the art of
herding to be of two kinds, may cause that which is now
sought amongst
twice the number of things, to be then sought amongst half that
Y. Soc. I will try;-there appears to me to be one management of
men and another of beasts.
Str. You have certainly divided them in a most straightforward and
manly style; but you have fallen into an error which
hereafter I think
that we had better avoid.
Y. Soc. What is the error?
Str. I think that we had better not cut off a single small portion
which is not a species, from many larger portions; the part should

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