heat and cold, and shields against heat and cold are shelters and
coverings; and coverings are blankets and garments; and garments are
some of them in one piece, and others of them are made in several
parts; and of these latter some are stitched, others are fastened
and not stitched; and of the not stitched, some are made of
of plants, and some of hair; and of these, again, some are cemented
with water and earth, and others are fastened together by
themselves. And these last defences and coverings which are fastened
together by themselves are called clothes, and the art which
superintends them we may call, from the nature of the operation, the
art of clothing, just as before the art of the Statesman was derived
from the State; and may we not say that the art of weaving, at least
that largest portion of it which was concerned with the making of
clothes, differs only in name from this art of clothing, in the same
way that, in the previous case, the royal science differed from the
Y. Soc. Most true.
Str. In the next place, let us make the reflection, that the art
of weaving clothes, which an incompetent person might fancy to have
been sufficiently described, has been separated off from several
others which are of the same family, but not from the co-operative
Y. Soc. And which are the kindred arts?
Str. I see that I have not taken you with me. So I think
that we had
better go backwards, starting from the end. We just now parted off
from the weaving of clothes, the making of blankets, which
each other in that one is put under and the other is put around! and
these are what I termed kindred arts.
Y. Soc. I understand.
Str. And we have subtracted the manufacture of all articles made
of flax and cords, and all that we just now metaphorically termed
the sinews of plants, and we have also separated off the process of
felting and the putting together of materials by stitching
of which the most important part is the cobbler's art.
Y. Soc. Precisely.
Str. Then we separated off the currier's art, which prepared
coverings in entire pieces, and the art of sheltering, and
subtracted the various arts of making water-tight which are employed
in building, and in general in carpentering, and in other crafts,
and all such arts as furnish impediments to thieving and acts of
violence, and are concerned with making the lids of boxes and the
fixing of doors, being divisions of the art of joining; and we also
cut off the manufacture of arms, which is a section of the great and
manifold art of making defences; and we originally began by parting
off the whole of the magic art which is concerned with antidoter,
and have left, as would appear, the very art of which we were in
search, the art of protection against winter cold, which fabricates
woollen defences, and has the name of weaving.
Y. Soc. Very true.
Str. Yes, my boy, but that is not all; for the first process to
which the material is subjected is the opposite of weaving.
Y. Soc. How so?
Str. Weaving is a sort of uniting?
Y. Soc. Yes.
Str. But the first process is a separation of the clotted
Y. Soc. What do you mean?
Str. I mean the work of the carder's art; for we cannot say that
carding is weaving, or that the carder is a weaver.