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must at any cost be separated from the true king or Statesman, if we
are ever to see daylight in the present enquiry.
Y. Soc. That is a hope not lightly to be renounced.
Str. Never, if I can help it; and, first, let me ask you a
Y. Soc. What?
Str. Is not monarchy a recognized form of government?
Y. Soc. Yes.
Str. And, after monarchy, next in order comes the government of
the few?
Y. Soc. Of course.
Str. Is not the third form of government the rule of the
multitude, which is called by the name of democracy?
Y. Soc. Certainly.
Str. And do not these three expand in a manner into five,
producing out of themselves two other names Y. Soc. What are they?
Y. Soc. What are they?
Str. There is a criterion of voluntary and involuntary, poverty
and riches, law and the absence of law, which men now-a-days apply
to them; the two first they subdivide accordingly, and ascribe to
monarchy two forms and two corresponding names, royalty and tyranny.
Y. Soc. Very true.
Str. And the government of the few they distinguish by the names
of aristocracy and oligarchy.
Y. Soc. Certainly.
Str. Democracy alone, whether rigidly observing the laws
or not, and
whether the multitude rule over the men of property with
their consent
or against their consent, always in ordinary language has the same
Y. Soc. True.
Str. But do you suppose that any form of government which
is defined
by these characteristics of the one, the few, or the many, of
poverty or wealth, of voluntary or compulsory submission, of written
law or the absence of law, can be a right one?
Y. Soc. Why not?
Str. Reflect; and follow me.
Y. Soc. In what direction?
Str. Shall we abide by what we said at first, or shall we retract
our words?
Y. Soc. To what do you refer?
Str. If I am not mistaken, we said that royal power was a science?
Y. Soc. Yes.
Str. And a science of a peculiar kind, which was selected
out of the
rest as having a character which is at once judicial and
Y. Soc. Yes.
Str. And there was one kind of authority over lifeless things and
another other living animals; and so we proceeded in the
division step
by step up to this point, not losing the idea of science, but unable
as yet to determine the nature of the particular science?
Y. Soc. True.
Str. Hence we are led to observe that the distinguishing principle
of the State cannot be the few or many, the voluntary or
involuntary, poverty or riches; but some notion of science must
enter into it, if we are to be consistent with what has preceded.
Y. Soc. And we must be consistent.
Str. Well, then, in which of these various forms of States may the
science of government, which is among the greatest of all
sciences and

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