another man"-in the similitude of these let us endeavour to discover
some image of the king.
Y. Soc. What sort of image?
Str. Well, such as this:-Every man will reflect that he suffers
strange things at the hands of both of them; the physician; saves
any whom he wishes to save, and any whom he wishes to maltreat he
maltreats-cutting or burning them; and at the same time
to bring him patients, which are a sort of tribute, of which
nothing is spent upon the sick man, and the greater part is consumed
by him and his domestics; and the finale is that he receives money
from the relations of the sick man or from some enemy of
his; and puts
him out of the way. And the pilots of ships are guilty, of
numberless evil deeds of the same kind; they intentionally play
false and leave you ashore when the hour of sailing arrives; or they
cause mishaps at sea and cast away their freight; and are guilty of
other rogueries. Now suppose that we, bearing all this in mind, were
to determine, after consideration, that neither of these arts shall
any longer be allowed to exercise absolute control either
or over slaves, but that we will summon an assembly either of all
the people, or of the rich only, that anybody who likes, whatever
may be his calling, or even if he have no calling, may offer an
opinion either about seamanship or about diseases-whether as to the
manner in which physic or surgical instruments are to be applied to
the patient, or again about the vessels and the nautical implements
which are required in navigation, and how to meet the
dangers of winds
and waves which are incidental to the voyage, how to behave when
encountering pirates, and what is to be done with the old fashioned
galleys, if they have to fight with others of a similar build-and
that, whatever shall be decreed by the multitude on these
the advice of persons skilled or unskilled, shall be written down on
triangular tablets and columns, or enacted although unwritten to be
national customs; and that in all future time vessels shall be
navigated and remedies administered to the patient after
Y. Soc. What a strange notion!
Str. Suppose further, that the pilots and physicians are appointed
annually, either out of the rich, or out of the whole
people, and that
they are elected by lot; and that after their election they navigate
vessels and heal the sick according to the written rules.
Y. Soc. Worse and worse.
Str. But hear what follows:-When the year of office has
pilot or physician has to come before a court of review, in which
the judges are either selected from the wealthy classes or chosen by
lot out of the whole people; and anybody who pleases may be their
accuser, and may lay to their charge, that during the past year they
have not navigated their vessels or healed their patients
the letter of the law and the ancient customs of their ancestors;
and if either of them is condemned, some of the judges must fix what
he is to suffer or pay.
Y. Soc. He who is willing to take a command under such conditions,
deserves to suffer any penalty.
Str. Yet once more, we shall have to enact that if any one is
detected enquiring into piloting and navigation, or into health and
the true nature of medicine, or about the winds, or other conditions
of the atmosphere, contrary to the written rules, and has any