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statesman   


altogether?
Y. Soc. To that science which governs the arts of speech and
persuasion.
Str. Which, if I am not mistaken, will be politics?
Y. Soc. Very good.
Str. Rhetoric seems to be quickly distinguished from
politics, being
a different species, yet ministering to it.
Y. Soc. Yes.
Str. But what would you think of another sort of power or science?
Y. Soc. What science?
Str. The science which has to do with military operations against
our enemies-is that to be regarded as a science or not?
Y. Soc. How can generalship and military tactics be regarded as
other than a science?
Str. And is the art which is able and knows how to advise when we
are to go to war, or to make peace, the same as this or different?
Y. Soc. If we are to be consistent, we must say different.
Str. And we must also suppose that this rules the other, if we are
not to give up our former notion?
Y. Soc. True.
Str. And, considering how great and terrible the whole art of war
is, can we imagine any which is superior to it but the truly royal?
Y. Soc. No other.
Str. The art of the general is only ministerial, and therefore not
political?
Y. Soc. Exactly.
Str. Once more let us consider the nature of the righteous judge.
Y. Soc. Very good.
Str. Does he do anything but decide the dealings of men with one
another to be just or unjust in accordance with the standard which
he receives from the king and legislator-showing his own peculiar
virtue only in this, that he is not perverted by gifts, or fears, or
pity, or by any sort of favour or enmity, into deciding the suits of
men with one another contrary to the appointment of the legislator?
Y. Soc. No; his office is such as you describe.
Str. Then the inference is that the power of the judge is
not royal,
but only the power of a guardian of the law which ministers to the
royal power?
Y. Soc. True.
Str. The review of all these sciences shows that none of them is
political or royal. For the truly royal ought not itself to act, but
to rule over those who are able to act; the king ought to
know what is
and what is not a fitting opportunity for taking the initiative in
matters of the greatest importance, whilst others, should execute
his orders.
Y. Soc. True.
Str. And, therefore, the arts which we have described, as they
have no authority over themselves or one another, but are
each of them
concerned with some special action of their own, have, as they ought
to have, special names corresponding to their several actions.
Y. Soc. I agree.
Str. And the science which is over them all, and has charge of the
laws, and of all matters affecting the State, and truly weaves them
all into one, if we would describe under a name characteristic of
their common nature, most truly we may call politics.
Y. Soc. Exactly so.
Str. Then, now that we have discovered the various classes in a
State, shall I analyse politics after the pattern which weaving
supplied?
Y. Soc. I greatly wish that you would.

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