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Demosthenes   


aristocratical; whom, after he had been acquitted in the assembly,
he took and brought before the court of Areopagus, and, setting at
naught the displeasure of the people, convicted him there of having
promised Philip to burn the arsenal; whereupon the man was condemned
by that court, and suffered for it. He accused, also, Theoris, the
priestess, amongst other misdemeanours, of having instructed and taught
the slaves to deceive and cheat their masters, for which the sentence
of death was passed upon her, and she was executed.
The oration which Apollodorus made use of, and by it carried the cause
against Timotheus, the general, in an action of debt, it is said was
written for him by Demosthenes; as also those against Phormion and
Stephanus, in which latter case he was thought to have acted dishonourably,
for the speech which Phormion used against Apollodorus was also of
his making; he, as it were, having simply furnished two adversaries
out of the same shop with weapons to wound one another. Of his orations
addressed to the public assemblies, that against Androtion and those
against Timocrates and Aristocrates, were written for others, before
he had come forward himself as a politician. They were composed, it
seems, when he was but seven or eight and twenty years old. That against
Aristogiton, and that for the Immunities, he spoke himself, at the
request, as he says, of Ctesippus, the son of Chabrias, but, as some
say, out of courtship to the young man's mother. Though, in fact,
he did not marry her, for his wife was a woman of Samos, as Demetrius,
the Magnesian, writes, in his book on Persons of the same Name. It
is not certain whether his oration against Aeschines, for Misconduct
as Ambassador, was ever spoken; although Idomeneus says that Aeschines
wanted only thirty voices to condemn him. But this seems not to be
correct, at least so far as may be conjectured from both their orations
concerning the Crown; for in these, neither of them speaks clearly
or directly of it, as a cause that ever came to trial. But let others
decide this controversy.
It was evident, even in time of peace, what course Demosthenes would
steer in the commonwealth; for whatever was done by the Macedonian,
he criticized and found fault with, and upon all occasions was stirring
up the people of Athens, and inflaming them against him. Therefore,
in the court of Philip, no man was so much talked of, or of so great
account as he; and when he came thither, one of the ten ambassadors
who were sent into Macedonia, though all had audience given them,
yet his speech was answered with most care and exactness. But in other
respects, Philip entertained him not so honourably as the rest, neither
did he show him the same kindness and civility with which he applied
himself to the party of Aeschines and Philocrates. So that, when the
others commended Philip for his able speaking, his beautiful person,
nay, and also for his good companionship in drinking, Demosthenes
could not refrain from cavilling at these praises; the first, he said,
was a quality which might well enough become a rhetorician, the second
a woman, and the last was only the property of a sponge; no one of
them was the proper commendation of a prince.
But when things came at last to war, Philip on the one side being
not able to live in peace, and the Athenians, on the other side, being
stirred up by Demosthenes, the first action he put them upon was the
reducing of Euboea, which, by the treachery of the tyrants, was brought
under subjection to Philip. And on his proposition, the decree was
voted, and they crossed over thither and chased the Macedonians out
of the island. The next was the relief of the Byzantines and Perinthians,
whom the Macedonians at that time were attacking. He persuaded the
people to lay aside their enmity against these cities, to forget the
offences committed by them in the Confederate War, and to send them
such succours as eventually saved and secured them. Not long after,
he undertook an embassy through the states of Greece, which he solicited
and so far incensed against Philip that, a few only excepted, he brought
them all into a general league. So that, besides the forces composed
of the citizens themselves, there was an army consisting of fifteen
thousand foot and two thousand horse, and the money to pay these strangers

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