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Duris reports that Eumenes, the Cardian, was the son of a poor wagoner
in the Thracian Chersonesus, yet liberally educated, both as a scholar
and a soldier; and that while he was but young, Philip, passing through
Cardia, diverted himself with a sight of the wrestling matches and
other exercises of the youth of that place, among whom Eumenes performing
with success, and showing signs of intelligence and bravery, Philip
was so pleased with him as to take him into his service. But they
seem to speak more probably who tell us that Philip advanced Eumenes
for the friendship he bore to his father, whose guest he had sometime
been. After the death of Philip, he continued in the service of Alexander,
with the title of his principal secretary, but in as great favour
as the most intimate of his familiars, being esteemed as wise and
faithful as any person about him, so that he went with troops under
his immediate command as general in the expedition against India,
and succeeded to the post of Perdiccas, when Perdiccas was advanced
to that of Hephaestion, then newly deceased. And therefore, after
the death of Alexander, when Neoptolemus, who had been captain of
his life-guard, said that he had followed Alexander with shield and
spear, but Eumenes only with pen and paper, the Macedonians laughed
at him, as knowing very well that, besides other marks of favour,
the king had done him the honour to make him a kind of kinsman to
himself by marriage. For Alexander's first mistress in Asia, by whom
he had his son Hercules, was Barsine the daughter of Artabazus; and
in the distribution of the Persian ladies amongst his captains, Alexander
gave Apame, one of his sisters, to Ptolemy, and another, also called
Barsine, to Eumenes.
Notwithstanding, he frequently incurred Alexander's displeasure, and
put himself into some danger, through Hephaestion. The quarters that
had been taken up for Eumenes, Hephaestion assigned to Euius, the
flute-player. Upon which, in great anger, Eumenes and Mentor came
to Alexander and loudly complained, saying that the way to be regarded
was to throw away their arms and turn flute-players or tragedians;
so much so that Alexander took their part and chid Hephaestion; but
soon after changed his mind again, and was angry with Eumenes, and
accounted the freedom he had taken to be rather an affront to the
king than a reflection upon Hephaestion. Afterwards, when Nearchus,
with a fleet, was to be sent to the Southern Sea, Alexander borrowed
money of his friends, his own treasury being exhausted, and would
have had three hundred talents of Eumenes, but he sent a hundred only,
pretending that it was not without great difficulty he had raised
so much from his stewards. Alexander neither complained nor took the
money, but gave private orders to set Eumenes's tent on fire, designing
to take him in a manifest lie, when his money was carried out. But
before that could be done the tent was consumed, and Alexander repented
of his orders, all his papers being burnt; the gold and silver, however,
which was melted down in the fire, being afterwards collected, was
found to be more than one thousand talents; yet Alexander took none
of it, and only wrote to the several governors and generals to send
new copies of the papers that were burnt, and ordered them to be delivered
to Eumenes.
Another difference happened between him and Hephaestion concerning
a gift, and a great deal of ill language passed between them, yet
Eumenes still continued in favour. But Hephaestion dying soon after,
the king, in his grief, presuming all those that differed with Hephaestion
in his lifetime were now rejoicing at his death, showed much harshness
and severity in his behaviour with them, especially towards Eumenes,
whom he often upbraided with his quarrels and ill language to Hephaestion.
But he, being a wise and dexterous courtier, made advantage of what
had done him prejudice, and struck in with the king's passion for
glorifying his friend's memory, suggesting various plans to do him
honour, and contributing largely and readily towards erecting his
After Alexander's death, when the quarrel broke out between the troops

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