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Pericles   


while she lived with him, two sons, Xanthippus and Paralus. Afterwards,
when they did not well agree, nor like to live together, he parted
with her, with her own consent, to another man, and himself took Aspasia,
and loved her with wonderful affection; every day, both as he went
out and as he came in from the market-place, he saluted and kissed
her.
In the comedies she goes by the nicknames of the new Omphale and Deianira,
and again is styled Juno. Cratinus, in downright terms, calls her
a harlot.
"To find him a Juno the goddess of lust
Bore that harlot past shame,
Aspasia by name." It should seem also that he had a son by her; Eupolis,
in his Demi, introduced Pericles asking after his safety, and Myronides
replying-
"My son?" "He lives: a man he had been long,
But that the harlot-mother did him wrong." Aspasia, they say, became
so celebrated and renowned, that Cyrus, also who made war against
Artaxerxes for the Persian monarchy, gave her whom he loved the best
of all his concubines the name of Aspasia, who before that was called
Milto. She was a Phocaean by birth, the daughter of one Hermotimus,
and, when Cyrus fell in battle, was carried to the king, and had great
influence at court. These things coming into my memory as I am writing
this story, it would be unnatural for me to omit them.
Pericles, however, was particularly charged with having proposed to
the assembly the war against the Samians, from favour to the Milesians,
upon the entreaty of Aspasia. For the two states were at war for the
possession of Priene; and the Samians, getting the better, refused
to lay down their arms and to have the controversy betwixt them decided
by arbitration before the Athenians. Pericles, therefore, fitting
out a fleet, went and broke up the oligarchical government at Samos,
and taking fifty of the principal men of the town as hostages, and
as many of their children, sent them to the isle of Lemnos, there
to be kept, though he had offers, as some relate, of a talent apiece
for himself from each one of the hostages, and of many other presents
from those who were anxious not to have a democracy. Moreover, Pisuthnes
the Persian, one of the king's lieutenants, bearing some good-will
to the Samians, sent him ten thousand pieces of gold to excuse the
city. Pericles, however, would receive none of all this; but after
he had taken that course with the Samians which he thought fit, and
set up a democracy among them, sailed back to Athens.
But they, however, immediately revolted, Pisuthnes having privily
got away their hostages for them, and provided them with means for
the war. Whereupon Pericles came out with a fleet a second time against
them, and found them not idle nor slinking away, but manfully resolved
to try for the dominion of the sea. The issue was, that after a sharp
sea-fight about the island called Tragia, Pericles obtained a decisive
victory, having with forty-four ships routed seventy of the enemy's,
twenty of which were carrying soldiers.
Together with his victory and pursuit, having made himself master
of the port, he laid siege to the Samians, and blocked them up, who
yet, one way or another, still ventured to make sallies, and fight
under the city walls. But after that another greater fleet from Athens
was arrived, and that the Samians were now shut up with a close leaguer
on every side, Pericles, taking with him sixty galleys, sailed out
into the main sea, with the intention, as most authors give the account,
to meet a squadron of Phoenician ships that were coming for the Samians'
relief, and to fight them at as great distance as could be from the
island; but, as Stesimbrotus says, with a design of putting over to
Cyprus, which does not seem to be probable. But, whichever of the
two was his intention, it seems to have been a miscalculation. For
on his departure, Melissus, the son of Ithagenes, a philosopher, being
at that time the general in Samos, despising either the small number
of the ships that were left or the inexperience of the commanders,
prevailed with the citizens to attack the Athenians. And the Samians

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