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and compulsion, there was little difference, since both may equally
suspend the exercise of reason.
He regulated the walks, feasts, and mourning of the women and took
away everything that was either unbecoming or immodest; when they
walked abroad, no more than three articles of dress were allowed them;
an obol's worth of meat and drink; and no basket above a cubit high;
and at night they were not to go about unless in a chariot with a
torch before them. Mourners tearing themselves to raise pity, and
set wailings, and at one man's funeral to lament for another, he forbade.
To offer an ox at the grave was not permitted, nor to bury above three
pieces of dress with the body, or visit the tombs of any besides their
own family, unless at the very funeral; most of which are likewise
forbidden by our laws, but this is further added in ours, that those
that are convicted of extravagance in their mournings are to be punished
as soft and effeminate by the censors of women.
Observing the city to be filled with persons that flocked from all
parts into Attica for security of living, and that most of the country
was barren and unfruitful, and that traders at sea import nothing
to those that could give them nothing in exchange, he turned his citizens
to trade, and made a law that no son be obliged to relieve a father
who had not bred him up to any calling. It is true, Lycurgus, having
a city free from all strangers, and land, according to Euripides-
"Large for large hosts, for twice their number much," and, above all,
an abundance of labourers about Sparta, who should not be left idle,
but be kept down with continual toil and work, did well to take off
his citizens from laborious and mechanical occupations, and keep them
to their arms, and teach them only the art of war. But Solon, fitting
his laws to the state of things, and not making things to suit his
laws, and finding the ground scarce rich enough to maintain the husbandmen,
and altogether incapable of feeding an unoccupied and leisured multitude,
brought trades into credit, and ordered the Areopagites to examine
how every man got his living, and chastise the idle. But that law
was yet more rigid which, as Heraclides Ponticus delivers, declared
the sons of unmarried mothers not obliged to relieve their fathers;
for he that avoids the honourable form of union shows that he does
not take a woman for children, but for pleasure, and thus gets his
just reward, and has taken away from himself every title to upbraid
his children, to whom he has made their very birth a scandal and reproach.
Solon's laws in general about women are his strangest; for he permitted
any one to kill an adulterer that found him in the act- but if any
one forced a free woman, a hundred drachmas was the fine; if he enticed
her, twenty; except those that sell themselves openly, that is, harlots,
who go openly to those that hire them. He made it unlawful to sell
a daughter or a sister, unless, being yet unmarried, she was found
wanton. Now it is irrational to punish the same crime sometimes very
severely and without remorse, and sometimes very lightly, and as it
were in sport, with a trivial fine; unless there being little money
then in Athens, scarcity made those mulcts the more grievous punishment.
In the valuation for sacrifices, a sheep and a bushel were both estimated
at a drachma; the victor in the Isthmian games was to have for reward
an hundred drachmas; the conqueror in the Olympian, five hundred;
he that brought a wolf, five drachmas; for a whelp, one; the former
sum, as Demetrius the Phalerian asserts, was the value of an ox, the
latter, of a sheep. The prices which Solon, in his sixteenth table,
sets on choice victims, were naturally far greater; yet they, too,
are very low in comparison of the present. The Athenians were, from
the beginning, great enemies to wolves, their fields being better
for pasture than corn. Some affirm their tribes did not take their
names from the sons of Ion, but from the different sorts of occupation
that they followed; the soldiers were called Hoplitae, the craftsmen
Ergades, and, of the remaining two, the farmers Gedeontes, and the
shepherds and graziers Aegicores.
Since the country has but few rivers, lakes, or large springs, and
many used wells which they had dug, there was a law made, that, where

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