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History of The Peloponnesian War - Book VI   

foundation of Syracuse, and drove out the Sicels by arms and founded
Leontini and afterwards Catana; the Catanians themselves choosing
Evarchus as their founder.
About the same time Lamis arrived in Sicily with a colony from
Megara, and after founding a place called Trotilus beyond the river
Pantacyas, and afterwards leaving it and for a short while joining the
Chalcidians at Leontini, was driven out by them and founded Thapsus.
After his death his companions were driven out of Thapsus, and founded
a place called the Hyblaean Megara; Hyblon, a Sicel king, having given
up the place and inviting them thither. Here they lived two hundred
and forty-five years; after which they were expelled from the city and
the country by the Syracusan tyrant Gelo. Before their expulsion,
however, a hundred years after they had settled there, they sent out
Pamillus and founded Selinus; he having come from their mother country
Megara to join them in its foundation. Gela was founded by
Antiphemus from Rhodes and Entimus from Crete, who joined in leading a
colony thither, in the forty-fifth year after the foundation of
Syracuse. The town took its name from the river Gelas, the place where
the citadel now stands, and which was first fortified, being called
Lindii. The institutions which they adopted were Dorian. Near one
hundred and eight years after the foundation of Gela, the Geloans
founded Acragas (Agrigentum), so called from the river of that name,
and made Aristonous and Pystilus their founders; giving their own
institutions to the colony. Zancle was originally founded by pirates
from Cuma, the Chalcidian town in the country of the Opicans:
afterwards, however, large numbers came from Chalcis and the rest of
Euboea, and helped to people the place; the founders being Perieres
and Crataemenes from Cuma and Chalcis respectively. It first had the
name of Zancle given it by the Sicels, because the place is shaped
like a sickle, which the Sicels call zanclon; but upon the original
settlers being afterwards expelled by some Samians and other Ionians
who landed in Sicily flying from the Medes, and the Samians in their
turn not long afterwards by Anaxilas, tyrant of Rhegium, the town
was by him colonized with a mixed population, and its name changed
to Messina, after his old country.
Himera was founded from Zancle by Euclides, Simus, and Sacon, most
of those who went to the colony being Chalcidians; though they were
joined by some exiles from Syracuse, defeated in a civil war, called
the Myletidae. The language was a mixture of Chalcidian and Doric, but
the institutions which prevailed were the Chalcidian. Acrae and
Casmenae were founded by the Syracusans; Acrae seventy years after
Syracuse, Casmenae nearly twenty after Acrae. Camarina was first
founded by the Syracusans, close upon a hundred and thirty-five
years after the building of Syracuse; its founders being Daxon and
Menecolus. But the Camarinaeans being expelled by arms by the
Syracusans for having revolted, Hippocrates, tyrant of Gela, some time
later receiving their land in ransom for some Syracusan prisoners,
resettled Camarina, himself acting as its founder. Lastly, it was
again depopulated by Gelo, and settled once more for the third time by
the Geloans.

Such is the list of the peoples, Hellenic and barbarian,
inhabiting Sicily, and such the magnitude of the island which the
Athenians were now bent upon invading; being ambitious in real truth
of conquering the whole, although they had also the specious design of
succouring their kindred and other allies in the island. But they were
especially incited by envoys from Egesta, who had come to Athens and
invoked their aid more urgently than ever. The Egestaeans had gone
to war with their neighbours the Selinuntines upon questions of
marriage and disputed territory, and the Selinuntines had procured the
alliance of the Syracusans, and pressed Egesta hard by land and sea.
The Egestaeans now reminded the Athenians of the alliance made in
the time of Laches, during the former Leontine war, and begged them to
send a fleet to their aid, and among a number of other

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