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History of The Peloponnesian War - Book VIII   

did not satisfy them in the past transactions, and upon the best and
mutually most advantageous manner of conducting the war in future. The
severest critic of the present proceedings was Lichas, who said that
neither of the treaties could stand, neither that of Chalcideus, nor
that of Therimenes; it being monstrous that the King should at this
date pretend to the possession of all the country formerly ruled by
himself or by his ancestors- a pretension which implicitly put back
under the yoke all the islands- Thessaly, Locris, and everything as
far as Boeotia- and made the Lacedaemonians give to the Hellenes
instead of liberty a Median master. He therefore invited Tissaphernes
to conclude another and a better treaty, as they certainly would not
recognize those existing and did not want any of his pay upon such
conditions. This offended Tissaphernes so much that he went away in
a rage without settling anything.


Twentieth and Twenty - first Years of the War -
Intrigues of Alcibiades - Withdrawal of the Persian
Subsidies - Oligarchical Coup d'Etat at
Athens - Patriotism of the Army at Samos

THE Peloponnesians now determined to sail to Rhodes, upon the
invitation of some of the principal men there, hoping to gain an
island powerful by the number of its seamen and by its land forces,
and also thinking that they would be able to maintain their fleet from
their own confederacy, without having to ask for money from
Tissaphernes. They accordingly at once set sail that same winter
from Cnidus, and first put in with ninety-four ships at Camirus in the
Rhodian country, to the great alarm of the mass of the inhabitants,
who were not privy to the intrigue, and who consequently fled,
especially as the town was unfortified. They were afterwards, however,
assembled by the Lacedaemonians together with the inhabitants of the
two other towns of Lindus and Ialysus; and the Rhodians were persuaded
to revolt from the Athenians and the island went over to the
Peloponnesians. Meanwhile the Athenians had received the alarm and set
sail with the fleet from Samos to forestall them, and came within
sight of the island, but being a little too late sailed off for the
moment to Chalce, and from thence to Samos, and subsequently waged war
against Rhodes, issuing from Chalce, Cos, and Samos.
The Peloponnesians now levied a contribution of thirty-two talents
from the Rhodians, after which they hauled their ships ashore and
for eighty days remained inactive. During this time, and even earlier,
before they removed to Rhodes, the following intrigues took place.
After the death of Chalcideus and the battle at Miletus, Alcibiades
began to be suspected by the Peloponnesians; and Astyochus received
from Lacedaemon an order from them to put him to death, he being the
personal enemy of Agis, and in other respects thought unworthy of
confidence. Alcibiades in his alarm first withdrew to Tissaphernes,
and immediately began to do all he could with him to injure the
Peloponnesian cause. Henceforth becoming his adviser in everything, he
cut down the pay from an Attic drachma to three obols a day, and
even this not paid too regularly; and told Tissaphernes to say to
the Peloponnesians that the Athenians, whose maritime experience was
of an older date than their own, only gave their men three obols,
not so much from poverty as to prevent their seamen being corrupted by
being too well off, and injuring their condition by spending money
upon enervating indulgences, and also paid their crews irregularly
in order to have a security against their deserting in the arrears
which they would leave behind them. He also told Tissaphernes to bribe
the captains and generals of the cities, and so to obtain their
connivance- an expedient which succeeded with all except the
Syracusans, Hermocrates alone opposing him on behalf of the whole
confederacy. Meanwhile the cities asking for money Alcibiades sent

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